* Foto kingdoms, ancient sites and tribes on Kalimantan: link
History of the kingdom
In the 7th century there were several Hindu-Budha kingdoms in the north of West Kalimantan, like:
- Kerajaan Wijaya Pura, about century 7 – 9
- Kerajaan Nek Riuh, about century 13 – 14
- Kerajaan Tan Unggal, about century 15
- Panembahan Sambas (Ratu Sepudak), about century 16
- Kesultanan Sambas, about century 17 – 20.
These kingdoms were purely Hindu-Buddhist, Sambas was the last kingdom in the north of West Kalimantan. After the collapse of Panembahan Sambas in Kota Lama, a new Kingdom appeared: the Sambas Sultanate with Raden Sulaiman as the first Sultan of Sambas Sultan Shafiuddin I Sultan in 1671.
The kingdom of Wijayapura is a Hindu-style kingdom that stood around the 7th century. This kingdom was located around the estuary of the Rejang River, West Kalimantan (Indonesia). The kingdom of Wijayapura was also known as the Kingdom of Ancient Sambas. The strong evidence of the existence of this kingdom is the discovery of archaeological objects in the form of pottery, statues of the Hindus, according to archaeologists’ estimates, they originated sometime in the 6th century AD or AD 7.
The ancient kingdom of Sambas existed from the 7th century until the time of the Kingdom of Panembahan Sambas, which ended around 1675.
The Kingdom of Panembahan Sambas was the forerunner of the Sultanate of Sambas, like the Ancient Kingdom of Kutai became the Sultanate of Kutai. But the Dynasty (lineage) of the Kingdom of Sambas is different from the Dynasty of the Sultanate of Sambas.
The ruler of the Kingdom of Sambas had the title Ratu or Panembahan. The title Ratu is below of the title Maharaja (called Sultan of the Islamic period). Panembahan is a title that became popular since 1500; it was used by Panembahan Jimbun, alias Raden Patah, the first king of the Sultanate of Demak on Jawa.
At first the state of Sambas (Kingdom Nek Riuh) was a vazal of the Kingdom of Baku.
Old maps of Kalimantan
For old maps of Kalimantan (1570, 1572, 1594, 1601, 1602, 1740, 1747, 1760, 1835), klik here.
Kalimantan (Borneo) 1601
– History of ancient Sambas and later the sultanate of Sambas on Melayuonline: link
Source (only indon. language)
– Sejarah kerajaan Sambas kuno di Wiki: Wiki
– Sejarah kerajaan Sambas kuno dan kesultanan Sambas di Melayuonline: link
– Sejarah kerajaan Sambas kuno: https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?id=327994650637217&story_fbid=327998270636855
– Sejarah kerajaan Sambas kuno: http://www.misterpangalayo.com/2015/10/kerajaan-wijayapura-kerajaan-hindu-di.html