Kingdom of Meulaboh / Sumatera – Prov. Aceh, Kab. Aceh Barat

The kingdom of Meulaboh is located on Sumatra, prov. Aceh, Kab. Aceh Barat.
During the sultanate of Aceh this ingdom is a vassal or subordinate sultan of Aceh and led by the king who holds Uleebalang.
After the end of the Aceh War, in 1914, Onderafdeling Meulaboh was formed by the Dutch government.

Location prov. of Aceh

Location of Meulaboh


* Foto Aceh: Sultanate of Aceh Darussalem: link
* Foto Aceh: kings of small kingdoms in Aceh: link
*
Foto Aceh: Aceh in the past: link
*
Foto Aceh: War Aceh-belanda (1873-1903): link


About the kingdom

Google translation

According to H M Zainuddin in the book Tarikh Aceh and Nusantara (1961) the origin of Meulaboh was Negeri Pasir Karam. This country was built built during the reign of Sultan Saidil Mukamil (1588-1604).
The western part of the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam was opened and built in the 16th century on the initiative of Sultan Saidil Mukamil (Sultan of Aceh who lived between 1588-1604), followed by Sultan Iskandar Muda (Sultan of Aceh who lived in 1607-1636) the Acehnese Rayeuk and Pidie.

The first bustling area was at Meulaboh bay (Pasi Karam) ruled by a king who was titled Teuku Keujruen Meulaboh, and Negeri Daya (District Jaya) who at the end of the 15th century had established a kingdom with its king is Sultan Salatin Alaidin Riayat Shah with the title Poteu Meureuhom Daya.

From further development, the area of West Aceh at the end of the 17th century had developed into several small kingdoms led by a Uleebalang, namely: Kluang; Lamno; Kuala Lambeusoe; Kuala Daya; Kuala Unga; Babah Awe; Krueng No; How to ‘Mon’; Lhok Kruet; Babah Nipah; Lageun; Lhok Geulumpang; Rameue; Lhok Rigaih; Krueng Sabee; Teunom; Panga; Woyla; Bubon; Lhok Bubon; Meulaboh; Seunagan; Tripa; Seuneu’am; Tungkop; Beutong; Pameue; Teupah (Tapah); Simeulue; Salang; Leukon.

In Meulaboh settlers from Minangkabau opened a pepper plantation which then made the area to stop by the English axes to buy spices. Meulaboh then developed rapidly under the reign of Sultan Ibrahim Mansyur Syah (1841-1870).
In its heyday, heads of state in Meulaboh then drafted a state system in the form of an uleebalang federation called Kawai XVI. The Federation was chaired by Uleebalang Kedjruen Tjiek Ujong Kala. Kawai XVI consisted of Meulaboh / Tandjung, Udjung Kala, Seunagan, Teuripa, Woyla, Peureumbeue, Gunung Meuëh, Kuala Meureubok, and Ranto Pandjang.
It was cCalled Kaway XVI because the federation was formed of sixteen Uleebalang, Uleebalang Tanjong, Ujong Kala, Seunagan, Teuripa, Woyla, Peureumbeu, Gunoeng Meuh, Kuala Meureuboe, Ranto Panyang, Reudeub, Lango Tangkadeuen, Keuntjo, Gume / Mugo, Tadu, Seuneu’am.
In addition to the Kaway XVI federation, on the border of West Aceh and Pidie was also formed the federation XII which consisted of 12 Uleebalang namely: Pameu, Ara, Lang Jeue, Reungeuet, Geupho, Reuhat, Tungkup / Dulok, Tanoh Mirah / Tutut, Geumpang, Tangse, Beunga, and Keumala. The XII Federation was headed by a Kejruen based in Geumpang.


List of kings of Meulaboh

* Tjik Pho Rahman, replaced by:
* T. Tjik Masaid, replaced by:
* T. Tjik Ali, replaced by:
* T. Tjik Abah, replaced by:
* T. Tjik Manso, oldest child became king of Meulaboh, it was:
* T. Tjik Raja Nagor, died 1913. Replaced by:
* T. Tjik Ali Akbar; temporary T. Tjik Raja Nagor named Teuku Raja Neh, still young.

Teuku Raja Neh (father of H.T. Rosman, former Regent of West Aceh) son of Teuku Tjik King Nagor Besar,  demanded that the kingdom be returned to him. But T. Tjik Ali Akbar was close with and T. King Neh was banished by the dutch to Sabang.
In 1942 when the Japanese entered Meulaboh, T.Tjik Ali Akbar was killed by the Japanese along with Teuku Ben and in 1978, his corpse was discovered in the former Dutch Tangsi or now in the Indrapuri Suak Village Army dormitory, then Meulaboh was ruled by the Wedana and the Regents and then broke into South Aceh, Simeulue, Nagan Raya, Aceh Jaya.


About the small kingdoms under the sultanate of Aceh

* List of Uleebalang, 1914: link
* List of Uleebalang, 1940: link

The western part of the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam was opened and built in the 16th century on the initiative of Sultan Saidil Mukamil (Sultan of Aceh who lived between 1588-1604), followed by Sultan Iskandar Muda (Sultan of Aceh who lived in 1607-1636) the Acehnese Rayeuk and Pidie.
The first bustling area was at Meulaboh bay (Pasi Karam) ruled by a king who was titled Teuku Keujruen Meulaboh, and Negeri Daya (District Jaya) which at the end of the 15th century had established a kingdom with its king is Sultan Salatin Alaidin Riayat Shah with the title Poteu Meureuhom Daya.
The area of West Aceh at the end of the 17th century had developed into several small kingdoms led by a Uleebalang, namely: Kluang; Lamno; Kuala Lambeusoe; Kuala Daya; Kuala Unga; Babah Awe, and many more.

The structure of government of the small kingdoms

1) Gampong, the leader was called Geucik or Keuchik. The smallest territorial area of the government structure in Aceh was the Gampong. A Gampong consisted of groups of houses adjacent to each other.
The leader of the gampong was called Geucik or Keuchik, who was assisted by a proficient in religious matters, as Teungku Meunasah.
2) Mukim, the leader was called Imum Mukim. The larger territorial area of government was the Mukim. The Mukim was a combination of several gampongs, which were located nearby.
The leader of Mukim was called Imum Mukim. He was the one who coordinated the village (gampong) heads or Keuchik-Keuchik.
3) Sago or Sagoe, the leader was called Commander Sagoe or Panglima Sagi. In the Aceh region of Rayeuk (District Aceh Besar now), was a form of government called Sagoe or Sagi. The entire region of Aceh Rayeuk was incorporated into three Sagi, which can be regarded as three federations. The three Sagoe or Sagi were named:
1. Sagi XXII Mukim, consisted of 22 mukim.
2. Siva XXV Mukim, consisted of 25 mukim
3. Sagi XXVI Mukim, consisted of 26 Mukim
The leader was called Panglima Sagoe or Panglima Sagi, from generation to generation, they also hold the title of Uleebalang.
They were appointed as Panglima Sagi by the Sultan of Aceh, who gave them a stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh known as Cap Sikureung.
4) Nangroe, the leader was called Uleebalang. Another form of royal territory found in Aceh was called Nangroe or Negeri. This Nangroe was actually a conquered area of the Kingdom of Aceh and was located outside Aceh Inti or Aceh Rayeuk.
The leadership of Nangroe was called Uleebalang, which was established by tradition for generations.
The
Uleebalang was the Head of State of the small kingdoms who were very powerful. However, when they assume the position of Uleebalang in their area, they had to be approved by the Sultan of Aceh. The Appointment Letter was called Sarakata and stamped with the stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh, Cap Sikureung.
5) The Sultan. The highest level in the government structure of the Kingdom of Aceh was the central government based in the royal capital, formerly known as Bandar Aceh Dar as Salam. The head of the central government was the Sultan who had the title of Tuanku.

Map of the small kingdoms in Aceh 1917


Source Meulaboh (only indon. language)

– Negeri Pasir Karam: https://sultansinindonesieblog.wordpress.com/xx/pasir-karam-negeri-sumatera-prov-aceh/
– Sejarah Meulaboh: https://rajaagam.wordpress.com/2008/09/26/datuk-raja-agam-dan-negeri-meulaboh-aceh/
– Sejarah Meulaboh: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabupaten_Aceh_Barat
– Sejarah Meulaboh dan Kawai XVI: https://archives.portalsatu.com/histori/riwayat-meulaboh-dalam-catatan-sejarah-aceh-disikolah-kito-berlaboh/
– Silsalah raja Meulaboh: http://aryandashare.blogspot.co.id/2013/10/sejarah-kota-meulaboh-aceh-barat.html

Source (only indon. language)

– Uleebalang di Aceh: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kesultanan_Aceh#Ul.C3.A8.C3.ABbalang_.26_Pembagian_Wilayah
– Uleebalang di kesultanan Aceh: https://www.kompasiana.com/ruslan./siapakah-uleebalang_552c324c6ea83444128b4580
– Sejarah Uleebalang: https://www.facebook.com/boy.adityamawardi/posts/771874096190147
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://febasfi.blogspot.co.id/2012/11/struktur-atau-lembaga-pemerintahan.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://helmiyymailcom.blogspot.co.id/2012/10/struktur-pemerintahaan-kerajaan-aceh.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://wartasejarah.blogspot.co.id/2013/07/kerajaan-aceh.html
– Tentang uleebalang: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ul%C3%A8%C3%ABbalang