History of Batavia (Jakarta) / Jawa

Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital of Indonesia, formerly Batavia during Dutch East Indies and Sunda Kelapa during Sunda Kingdom.


* Foto of Batavia / Jakarta in the past: link


Castle of Batavia, 1656-1658


History

The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the fourth century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia. Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From 7th to early 13th century port of Sunda was within the sphere of influence of the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java (Sunda). The source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, pepper from Sunda being among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles. The harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the fourteenth century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom.

The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices. The Hindu Kingdom of Sunda made an alliance treaty with Portugal by allowing the Portuguese to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of the Islamic Sultanate of Demak from central Java.[26] In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, and became a fiefdom of the Sultanate of Banten which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre.

Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company’s first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682.
Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with the English merchants, rivals of the Dutch, by allowing them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615.

When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch deteriorated, Jayawikarta’s soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. Prince Jayawikarta’s army and the English were defeated by the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen (J.P. Coen). The Dutch burned the English fort, and forced the English to retreat on their ships. The victory consolidated Dutch power and in 1619 they renamed the city Batavia.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakarta


Kota Tua / Old city

Kota Tua Jakarta (“Jakarta Old Town”), officially known as Kota Tua, is a neighborhood comprising the original downtown area of Jakarta, Indonesia. It is also known as Oud Batavia (Dutch “Old Batavia”), Benedenstad (Dutch “Lower City”, contrasting it with Weltevreden, de Bovenstad (“Upper City”)), or Kota Lama (Indonesian “Old Town”). It spans 1.3 square kilometres within North Jakarta and West Jakarta (Kelurahan Pinangsia, Taman Sari and Kelurahan Roa Malaka, Tambora). The largely Chinese downtown area of Glodok is a part of Kota Tua.

Kota Tua is a remainder of Oud Batavia, the first walled settlement of the Dutch in Jakarta area. It was an inner walled city with its own Castle. The area gained importance during the 17th-19th century when it was established as the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. This inner walled city contrasted with the surrounding kampung (villages), orchards, and rice fields. Dubbed “The Jewel of Asia” in the 16th century by European sailors, the area was a center of commerce due to its strategic location within the spice trade industry in the archipelago.

The first concrete plan of Kota Tua revitalization was signed in December 2004 by Jakarta Old Town-Kotaku and the government of Jakarta. The commencement of the revitalization plan was started in 2005. Taman Fatahillah Square was revitalized in 2006.

In 2014 the city’s governor at that time Joko Widodo continued the restoration plan of Kota Tua. The project, named “Jakarta Old Town Reborn” (JOTR), is a cooperation between state-owned enterprises, the municipal government and the private sector.


Source (english)

– History of Batavia (Jakarta): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakarta
– History of Kota Tua, the Old City: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kota_Tua_Jakarta

Source (only indon. language)

– Sejarah DKI Jakarta: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daerah_Khusus_Ibukota_Jakarta
Sejarah Batavia: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Batavia
Sejarah Kota tua Jakarta: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kota_Tua_Jakarta
Sejarah Kota tua Jakarta: http://www.jeforah.org/jakarta-kota-tua
– Sejarah berdirinya kota Jakarta tua: http://www.portalsejarah.com/sejarah-berdirinya-kota-jakarta-kota-tua.html

– Penyerbuan Batavia 1629: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penyerbuan_di_Batavia_1628


Batavia 1740