The kingdom of Biboki was located on the island of Timor, District Timor Tengah Utara, prov. Nusa Tenggara Timur.
District Timor Tengah Utara
Location of Timor
About the king today (2020)
October 10, 2019
Emperor of Biboki, Yohanes Tnesi Iba Usboko, died on Thursday, at around 10:50 p.m. local time, after undergoing medical treatment at the Kefamenanu Regional General Hospital (RSUD). The deceased died at the age of 91.
History of the kingdom
The Biboki kingdom is also called the palace of the emperor / sonaf by the local community. In the past, the kingdom was ruled by an emperor or commonly called the Emperor / King Atupas Neno. The Kingdom of Biboki is centered in Tamkesi. The division of the power of the Biboki kingdom was based on the residence of the tribes on the four cardinal points commonly called Klunin Boes-Baat Boes.
The Biboki kingdom is led by a king (Usif Kokoh) from the Usboko clan. The Kaiser is believed to be the son of Neno Anan Funan Anan, the son of the sun god and the son of the moon goddess. This means that Kaiser Biboki has the power to organize everything that is good and noble. Kaiser was assisted by the minor kings who led the amaf, namely Paisanaunu and Belsikone. Amaf is a large ethnic group that acts as a traditional legislative body that collects the aspirations of the Tamkesi community and facilitates coordination.
The Tamkesi community is the Usboko clan of the Dawan tribe or in local terms it is called Atoin Meto. The Atoin Meto ethnic live in the West part of Timor Island. Initially these people were nomadic, moving from around the coast of Oepuah and finally settling in the area of Mount Kembar Tapenpah and Oepuah. Oepuah is a symbol of fertility and prosperity, while Tapenpah is a symbol of power and strength. In this village, the sacred iron scales find their balance and are considered the center of the earth by the local community. For this reason, this location is called Tamkesi. In the Dawan language, Tamkesi means that it is firmly attached to its axis and firmly immovable. Therefore, Tamkesi was made the center of the Biboki kingdom.
Tnais iron is a sacred object of the Biboki kingdom in the form of scales. The location of Tamkesi is believed to be the center of the earth so that it became the center of the Biboki kingdom which was led by a king called Usif Kokoh / Kaiser. In addition, the location of Tamkesi is considered perfect because it is complete with natural elements such as stones, water, wood, soil because it is considered to have sacredness.
Kingdoms on Timor, 1900
Palace of the kingdom, Sonaf Tamkesi
List of kings
…. – ….: Usi Taum Kenad [1st ruler]
…. – ….: Nesi Bokko I
…. – ….: Tabesi Bokko
c.1840 – c.1860: Nesi Tahoni
c.1860 – 1900: Nesi Bokko II
1900 – 1904: Tabesi Usi Ana Pah
1905 – 1915: Nesi Tahut Paha Kornel
1915 – 1940: Kau Mauk
1942 – 1962: Leonardus Taek Kau
Old maps of Timor
For old maps of Timor 1521, 1550, 1600, 1650, 1733, 1700-an, 1762, 1900: klik here
Source (only indon. language)
– Tentang Sonaf Biboki: http://wisata.nttprov.go.id/index.php/2014-01-20-04-43-22/kota-kupang/timor-tengah-utara/138-sonaf-tamkesi-istana-kaisar-biboki
– Daftar Raja: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_rulers_of_Timor#Kings_of_Biboki.5B22.5D