Kingdom of Biboki / Isl. of Timor – Prov. Nusa Tenggara Timur

The kingdom of Biboki was located on the island of  Timor, District Timor Tengah Utara, prov. Nusa Tenggara Timur.

District Timor Tengah Utara


Location of Timor

* Foto kings today onTimor: link
* Foto kings of Timor in the past: link

* Foto old sites on Timor: link

* Video history Timor and NTT, century 1 AD – today: link


About the king today (2020)

October 10, 2019
Emperor of Biboki, Yohanes Tnesi Iba Usboko, died on Thursday, at around 10:50 p.m. local time, after undergoing medical treatment at the Kefamenanu Regional General Hospital (RSUD). The deceased died at the age of 91.

History of the kingdom

The Biboki kingdom is also called the palace of the emperor / sonaf by the local community. In the past, the kingdom was ruled by an emperor or commonly called the Emperor / King Atupas Neno. The Kingdom of Biboki is centered in Tamkesi. The division of the power of the Biboki kingdom was based on the residence of the tribes on the four cardinal points commonly called Klunin Boes-Baat Boes.

The Biboki kingdom is led by a king (Usif Kokoh) from  the Usboko clan. The Kaiser is believed to be the son of Neno Anan Funan Anan, the son of the sun god and the son of the moon goddess. This means that Kaiser Biboki has the power to organize everything that is good and noble. Kaiser was assisted by the minor kings who led the amaf, namely Paisanaunu and Belsikone. Amaf is a large ethnic group that acts as a traditional legislative body that collects the aspirations of the Tamkesi community and facilitates coordination.

The Tamkesi community is the Usboko clan of the Dawan tribe or in local terms it is called Atoin Meto. The Atoin Meto ethnic live in the West part of Timor Island. Initially these people were nomadic, moving from around the coast of Oepuah and finally settling in the area of ​​Mount Kembar Tapenpah and Oepuah. Oepuah is a symbol of fertility and prosperity, while Tapenpah is a symbol of power and strength. In this village, the sacred iron scales find their balance and are considered the center of the earth by the local community. For this reason, this location is called Tamkesi. In the Dawan language, Tamkesi means that it is firmly attached to its axis and firmly immovable. Therefore, Tamkesi was made the center of the Biboki kingdom.

Tnais iron is a sacred object of the Biboki kingdom in the form of scales. The location of Tamkesi is believed to be the center of the earth so that it became the center of the Biboki kingdom which was led by a king called Usif Kokoh / Kaiser. In addition, the location of Tamkesi is considered perfect because it is complete with natural elements such as stones, water, wood, soil because it is considered to have sacredness.

Kingdoms on Timor, 1900

Palace of the kingdom, Sonaf Tamkesi

Google translation

Sonaf Tamkesi is the Palace of the Emperor of the Biboki Kingdom since 1865, a megalithic village that is considered sacred to the Biboki people and their surroundings. Built on rocky rocks and surrounded by stone fortresses and two very steep twin rock hills (Mount Oepuah and Bukit Tapenpah) which are symbols of men and women).
Tamkesi is located between 2 rocky mountains: Mount Oepuah and Mount Tapenpah. Both became symbols of cosmic power. Manifest in various patterns of east-west relations.

On the east side, Mount Tapenpah represents the male element. The holder of royal executive power. Apart from having to defend their territory, they are also in charge of organizing the neno.
On the west side, it represents the element of women. There is the Oe Puah spring. The west-east correlation then forms the pah nitu (homeland) as the place of origin. Interestingly, here is the main sonaf in the form of Neno Biboki (Biboki Heaven). The most sacred building and a source of power for the ruler.

The Tamkesi Palace complex was built from under the hill in a bow consisting of seven levels and arranged according to certain classifications. On the hill of Oepuah is Ustetu. The court stone mesbah and execution are shaped like a heart as an offering to God.

List of kings

…. – ….: Usi Taum Kenad [1st ruler]
…. – ….: Nesi Bokko I
…. – ….: Tabesi Bokko

c.1840 – c.1860: Nesi Tahoni
c.1860 – 1900: Nesi Bokko II
1900 – 1904: Tabesi Usi Ana Pah
1905 – 1915: Nesi Tahut Paha Kornel
1915 – 1940: Kau Mauk
1942 – 1962: Leonardus Taek Kau

– Sumber:

Old maps of Timor

For old maps of Timor 1521, 1550, 1600, 1650, 1733, 1700-an, 1762, 1900: klik here

Timor  1521

Source (only indon. language)

– Tentang Sonaf Biboki:
Daftar Raja:


King Johanis Tnesi Us Boko

The location of Tamkesi is believed to be the center of the earth to be the center of the Biboki kingdom led by a king called Usif Kokoh / Kaiser. In addition, the location of Tamkesi is considered perfect because it is complete with natural elements such as stone, water, wood, soil as it is considered to have sanctity.

Meeting with the kesel of Beboki. Timor. 2014

Create a free website or blog at

%d bloggers like this: