Kingdom of Bayan / Isl. of Lombok – Prov. Nusa Tenggara Barat

The kingdom of Bayan was located on Lombok. Already existed in the 12th century.

Location Bayan on Lombok.

—————–

Location island of Lombok


* Foto intervention of the dutch on Lombok, 1894: link
* Foto Sasak tribe: link
* Foto old sites on Lombok: link


History of the kingdom of Bayan

Bayan is the name of a village and sub-district famous across the archipelago and even abroad. This is because the community that lives in Bayan Village still retains and practices customs and cultural values, including customary law that regulates and binds the whole community adat Bayan, customary law also regulates the relationship between society with society, society with its natural environment, and society with its God.

In ancient times about 1150 Bayan was led by a king, called Datu Bayan, titled Susuhunan Ratu Mas Bayan Agung. The genealogy mentions that the king had no less than 18 brothers/sisters,  from the marriaage of the previous king, who had several wives and concubines.
History tells, that king Bayan had 2 sons with his first wife: Prince Mas and onother Prince Mas; both princes  ruled the kingdom of Bayan.
In the year 1352 AD, Gajah Mada came to Lombok to see the development of conquered lands. In Lombok at that time, were four major kingdoms, namely:
1. The Kingdom of Bayan in the west
2. Selaparang kingdom in the East
3. Langko kingdom in the middle
4. Pejanggik kingdom in the south.

Besides the four kingdoms, there were several small kingdoms, such as Parwa and chock Samarkaton and several small villages, such as Pujut, Tempit, Kedaro, Batu Dendeng, Kuripan, and Kentawang. These kingdoms and villages were under Majapahit power. With the collapse of Majapahit kingdom, these kingdoms and villages became independent.
After the establisment of the Government of Bayan after independence of Indonesia, there was no place for the kingdom and joined the Unitary Republic of Indonesia.

Kompleks Old Mosque of Bayan Beleq

 .

History of the kingdoms on Lombok
.
According to the contents of Babad Lombok, the oldest kingdom that once ruled on Lombok, was named kingdom of Laeq (in sasak laeq means past time), but another source namely Babad Suwung, declared that the oldest kingdom in Lombok was the Kingdom of Suwung, built and led by King Betara Indera. The kingdom of Suwung then was replaced by the kingdom of Lombok. In the 9th century until the 11th century existed the Sasak Kingdom which was later defeated by one of the kingdoms, who came from Bali at that time.

In Lombok, in its development, there are traces of the four main kingdoms, namely the Kingdom of Bayan in the west, Selaparang Kingdom in the East, Langko Kingdom in the middle, and Pejanggik Kingdom in the south. In addition to these four kingdoms, there were small kingdoms, such as Parwa and Sokong and several small villages, such as Pujut, Tempit, Kedaro, Batu Dendeng, Kuripan, Samarkaton and Kentawang. All these kingdoms and villages became independent territory after the Majapahit kingdom collapsed. Among the most prominent and most famous kingdoms and villages was the Lombok Kingdom based in Labuhan Lombok.

The Dutch had first visited Lombok in 1674 and the Dutch East India Company concluded its first treaty with the Sasak Princess of Lombok. The Balinese had managed to take over the whole island by 1750, but Balinese infighting resulted in the island being split into four feuding Balinese kingdoms. In 1838, the Mataram kingdom brought its rivals under control.

During one of the many Sasak peasant rebellions against the Balinese, Sasak chiefs sent envoys to the Dutch in Bali and invited them to rule Lombok. In June 1894, the governor general of the Dutch East Indies, Van der Wijck, signed a treaty with Sasak rebels in eastern Lombok. He sent a large army to Lombok and the Balinese raja capitulated to Dutch demands. (see Dutch intervention in Lombok) The younger princes however overruled the raja and attacked and pushed back the Dutch. The Dutch counterattacked overrunning Mataram and the raja surrendered. The entire island was annexed to the Netherlands East Indies in 1895. The Dutch ruled over Lombok’s 500,000 people with a force of no more than 250 by cultivating the support of the Balinese and Sasak aristocracy. The Dutch are remembered in Lombok as liberators from Balinese hegemony.

A traditional village house in Bayan

Rumah di desa adat Bayan, beberapa mash beratap alang-alang


Wetu Telu

Wetu Telu (Indonesian: Waktu Tiga) is the unique practice of some Sasak people in practicing Islam, which only practices the three pillars of Islam, namely reading the two sentences of the creed, praying and fasting. The three pillars of Islam are sufficiently carried out by the kyai as the religious leader who connects them with Allah. They also believe in the existence of holy spirits of their ancestors and supernatural powers on objects.


Entrance of Islam on Lombok

Prior to the entry of Islam, the people who inhabit Lombok consecutively believed animism, dynamism and then Hinduism. Islam first entered through the “wali” of the island of Java, namely sunan Prapen in about the 16th century, after the collapse of the Majapahit kingdom.
In conveying the teachings of Islam, the wali’s did not necessarily eliminate the old habits of people, who still embraced the old faith. There was even acculturation between Islam and the culture of the local community, because the spreaders were using local customs to facilitate the delivery of Islam. The religious teachings of that day were rewritten in Old Javanese. Even the shahadah for the Wetu Telu followers was accompanied by a sentence in Old Javanese. In those days, those who were required to perform the worship. were the kiai.When the kingdom of Lombok was led by king Rangkesari, Prince Prapen, son of Sunan Ratu Giri, came to Islamize the kingdom of Lombok. In Babad Lombok is mentioned, this Islamic is an effort of Raden Paku or Sunan Ratu Giri from Gersik, Surabaya who ordered the kings of East Java and Palembang to spread Islam to various regions in the archipelago. The process of Islam by Sunan Prapen got a lively result, until several years later the whole island of Lombok embraced Islam, except for some places that still retain the old customs.


Source kingdom Bayan (only indon. language)

– Masuknya Islam di Bayan: http://hu-lun.blogspot.co.id/2016/08/kledatuan-sasak-lombok.html
.
Source old kingdoms on Lombok (only indon. language)

– Sejarah Kedatuan kuno Sasak: http://suparmanol.blogspot.co.id/2010/12/sejarah-kedatuan-sasak.html
– Sejarah Kedatuan kuno Sasak: http://gdefik.blogspot.co.id/2012/10/kedatuan-di-gumi-sasak-1.html
– Sejarah kerajaan di Lombok: http://melayuonline.com/ind/history/dig/307/kerajaan-lombok
– Sejarah pulau Lombok di Wiki:  https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulau_Lombok#Sejarah

Source entering Islam on Lombok (only indon. language)

– Masuk Islam di Lombok: http://fadlisworld.blogspot.co.id/2014/09/sejarah-masuknya-islam-di-lombok.html
– Masuk Islam di Lombok: http://situs9.blogspot.co.id/2014/08/masuk-dan-berkembangnya-agama-islam-di.html


Blog at WordPress.com.

%d bloggers like this: