The Kingdom of Nagur: 5th century – 12th century. Kingdom of the Simalungun People, Clan Damanik. Located in the district of Simalungun.
District of Simalungun
History of the kingdom Nagur
The kingdom of Nagir was a kingdom of the Simalungun People, of the Clan Damanik.
Nagur existed in the 5th century and collapsed in the 12th century
The kingdom of Nagur was a kingdom of the Damanik Dynasty, which once existed in Simalungun. Various foreign sources, such as Zheng and Ma Huan from China, reported about this kingdom, compiled by Groenevelt. M.O. Parlindungan, in his book Tuanku Rao (2007), arguing, that the Kingdom of Nagur rose in the 5th century and collapsed in the 12th century. However, Zheng reported about Nagur as ‘Nakkur‘, ‘Nakureh’, or ‘Japur’, which he visited three times by the year 1423. While Ma Huan Nagur reported, that the name ‘Napur’ was the kingdom ‘Batta’ . Tome Pires (1512-1515) and Mendez Pinto (1539), Marco Polo (1292), Augustin de Beaulieu (1621), and Ibn Battuta (1345) connected the name Nagur with the nearby Aru. (Damanik, 2009: 1-2).
But in other writings, such as those of T. Lukman Sinar, SH (1974), TM Lah Husni (1976), Tarikh Aceh Jilid II, and Brahmo Putro (1984), there was also mentioned the Nagur kingdom. A manuscript about the kingdom Nagur is Parpadanan Na Bolak. Djahutar Damanik (1984) and Sejarah Simalungun (TBA Tambak, 1976) have also tried to positioning the kingdom Nagur (Damanik, 2009: 3-4).
The region of Simalungun today
The Clan Damanik
Damanik is a clan from the Simalungun tribe originally from an area called Simalungun in the province of North Sumatra, Indonesia. Damanik means Simada Manik (manic owner), which in Simalungun Manik means Tonduy, Sumangat, Tunggung, Halanigan (passionate, charismatic, great / honorable, most intelligent).
Several versions of historical sources suggest that the Damanic clan ancestors and other clans in the Simalungun Tribe originated from Nagore (South India) and Assam mountains (East India) around the 5th century, along Burma, to Siam and Malacca to further cross into Sumatra East and established the kingdom of Nagur from the Damanic Dynasty King.
In the 12th century, the descendants of King Nagur were attacked by King Rajendra Chola of India, resulting in their expulsion from Pamatang Nagur in Pandan Island to 3 parts according to the number of his sons:
– Angry Silau (who handed down King Manik Hasian, King Jumorlang, King Sipolha, King Siantar, King Sidamanik and King Bandar)
– Soro Tilu (who descended the clan of the king of Nagur around Simbolon mountain: Damanik Nagur, Bayu, Hajangan, Rih, Malayu, Rappogos, Obsolete, Rih, Simaringga, Sarasan, Sola)
– Timo Raya (who deposed King Bornou, King Ula and his descendant Damanik Tomok)
Kingdoms in the Simalungun area
In its history there are 3 (three) phases of kingdoms, that once ruled and reigned in Simalungun.
The first phase is the two kingdom phase (harajaon na dua):
NB: Marga = Clan
The second phase is the phase of 4 kingdoms:
The third phase is the phase of 7 kingdoms:
* Kingdom of Siantar (marga Damanik),
* Kingdom of Panai (marga Purba Dasuha),
* Kingdom of Silau (marga Purba Tambak),
* Kingdom of Tanoh Jawa (marga Sinaga),
* Kingdom of Raya (marga Saragih Garingging),
* Kingdom of Purba (marga Purba Pakpak) dan
* Kingdom of Silimakuta (marga Purba Girsang) (Damanik, 2010:1-2).
This third phase begins with the actions of the Dutch government to form a government in the Simalungun region, by treating Belsuit Governor General of the Dutch East Indies Stbl. No 531 of 1906 with the arrangement of seven Kingdoms, called “Napal Kings”.
Map of kingdoms in Sumatera Utara, 19th century
Source (only indon. language)
– Sejarah kerajaan Simalungun: http://uun-halimah.blogspot.co.id/2007/12/raja-dan-kerajaan-di-simalungun.html
– Sejarah kerajaan Simalungun: http://awisaragih.blogspot.co.id/2011/03/kerajaan-simalungun-dan-siantar.html
– Sejarah kerajaan Simalungun: http://tondangmargana.blogspot.co.id/2013/02/sejarah-singkat-kerajaan-kerajaan.html
– Suku Simalungun di Wiki: Wiki
– Marga marga Simalungun: https://batakculture.wordpress.com/2012/02/27/marga-marga-di-simalungun/
– Sejarah marga Purba di Wiki: Wiki
– Sejarah marga Saragih di Wiki: Wiki
– Sejarah marga Sinaga di Wiki: Wiki
– Sejarah marga Damanik di Wiki: Wiki
– Asal usul bangsa Simalungun: link