Kingdom of Seran / Isl. of Sumbawa – Prov. Nusa Tenggara Barat

The kingdom of Seran, 13th – 16th century.
Located on the island of pulau Sumbawa, Kecamatan Seteluk, Kabupaten Sumbawa Barat, Prov. Nusa Tenggara Barat.

Island of Sumbawa

Location island of Sumbawa


* Foto kingdoms on Sumbawa: link
* Foto ancient sites on Sumbawa: link


History of the kingdom

13th Century: There was a Seran kingdom in Seteluk.
14th and 15th centuries: in Sumbawa there were about 8 kingdoms with each of them having a satellite kingdom, including the Seranite kingdom.
It is thought that Hindu-Buddhist religion had grown rapidly in small kingdoms on the island of Sumbawa about 200 years before the invasion of Majapahit Kingdom to this region. Some of these kingdoms included the Kingdom of Dewa Mas Kuning in Selesek (Ropang), the Kingdom of Airenung (Moyo Hulu), the Kingdom of Sampar Semulan (Moyo Hulu), the Kingdom of Gunung Setia (Sumbawa), the Kingdom of Dewa Maja Paruwa (Utan), the Kingdom of Seran, the Kingdom of Taliwang, and the Kingdom of Jereweh.

The kingdom of Taliwang consisteded of 3 kingdoms, namely Jereweh Kingdom led by King Magaparang, Kingdom of Taliwang led by Datu Taliwang and Seran Kingdom led by Datu Seran.
Kemutar Telu: the kingdoms of Seran, Taliwang and Jereweh had as a symbol of shelter under the rule of the Kingdom of Sumbawa eight kinds of obligations, according to the customary term “Sonang lawang blau balu” (through door eight) namely:

* First: Nguri (an offering of money in a certain number according to the position of each official to the king, if the King overwritten / like.
* Second: Join kuta (fort) of Sumbawa country, make “In” wall and collect logs.
* Third: Collecting cloth and people, and join the King when visiting Makassar.
* Fourth: Bring delivery (customary term: perisi or press tonang) and attend the death ceremony.
* Fifth: Equal to four at the marriage ceremony, circumcision and so on.
* Sixth: Make work on dams and gullies with people from Mata to Sekongkang
* Seventh: Give help in case of war
* Eighth: Pay the coffin money.

Seran Kingdom already existed before the Taliwang Kingdom, although both kingdoms are equally conquered by Majapahit in 1357. Seran Kingdom had a higher emotional relationship with the kingdoms in the eastern part of Sumbawa, which then affects the language that developed in this region, while the Taliwang Kingdom had a close relationship with the Selaparang Kingdom in the eastern part of Lombok Island.
The royal soldiers of Seran were also well-known in the battle with Majapahit army. When Gajah Mada expanded the Majapahit kingdom to the eastern part of the archipelago, Gajah Mada was defeated by Seran warriors. A representative of the kingdom of Majapahit was killed in the battle. His body was burried buried in a grave which is now called the tomb of Seran (Muslimin Yasin, Bima en Sumbawa).
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Kingdoms on Sumbawa


Tomb of Datu of Seran

Tomb Datu Seran is geographically located at the end of Seran Village, Seteluk Subdistrict, Kab. West Sumbawa. The gravestone is made of stone carvings from the Dutch period has been thousands of years old. The location of this Tomb has a total area of ± 60 M2. This burial complex is already damaged due to eroded water. The main grave is the Tomb of King Seran (Datu Seran), located in a small house that has been renovated by the Local Government as the location of the historic cemetery. (more foto’s below)


Short history of the island of Sumbawa

The 14th-century Nagarakretagama mentioned several principalities identified to be on Sumbawa; Dompu, Bima, Sape and Sang Hyang Api volcanic island just offcoast of northeast Sumbawa. Four principalities in western Sumbawa were dependencies of the Majapahit Empire of eastern Java. Because of Sumbawa’s natural resources, it was regularly invaded by outside forces – from Javanese, Balinese, Makassarese, Dutch and Japanese. The Dutch first arrived in 1605, but did not effectively rule Sumbawa until the early 20th century.
The Balinese kingdom of Gelgel ruled western Sumbawa for a short period as well. The eastern parts of the island were also home to the Sultanate of Bima, an Islamic polity that had links to Bugis and Makasarese people of South Sulawesi, as well as other Malay-Islamic polities in the archipelago.Historical evidence indicates that people on Sumbawa island were known in the East Indies for their honey, horses, sappan wood for producing red dye, and sandalwood used for incense and medications. The area was thought to be highly productive agriculturally.

In the 18th century, the Dutch introduced coffee plantation on the western slopes of Mount Tambora, a volcano on the north side of Sumbawa, thus creating the Tambora coffee variant. Tambora’s colossal eruption in 1815 was one of the most powerful of all time, ejecting 150 cubic kilometres (36 cu mi) of ash and debris into the atmosphere. The eruption killed up to 71,000 people and triggered a period of global cooling known as the “Year Without a Summer” in 1816. It also apparently destroyed a small culture of Southeast Asian affinity, known to archaeologists as the “Tambora culture”.


Old map of Sumbawa (Cambaua)

Klik here for old maps of Sumbawa 1598, 1606 Sumbawa / Nusantara, 1614, 1615, 1697 Sumbawa / Nusantara 1800-an, 1856, 1856, 1910.

 Sumbawa 1615


Source Seran (only indon. language)

Tentang kerajaan Seran:http://komedik-ksb.blogspot.co.id/2010/03/makam-kerajaan-datu-seran.html
Tentang kerajaan Seran:http://disparekraf.sumbawabaratkab.go.id/makam-datu-seran.html
Tentang kerajaan Seran:https://kombotaliwang.wordpress.com/sejarah/
– Tentang makam Datu Seran: http://disparekraf.sumbawabaratkab.go.id/makam-datu-seran.html

Source history island of Sumbawa (only indon. language)

– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: https://ihinsolihin.wordpress.com/artikel/sejarah-raja-pemerintahan-di-sumbawa/
– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: http://sejarahini.blogspot.co.id/2013/06/sejarah-singkat-pulau-sumbawa.html
– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: http://www.galeribudaya.com/2017/10/sejarah-pulau-sumbawa.html
– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: http://lsotour.blogspot.co.id/2012/01/sejarah-singkat-sumbawa.html


Foto

Grave of Datu of Seran

Grave of Datu of Seran

Grave of Datu of Seran


 

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