Aceh – Holland War, 1873–1904

The Aceh War, also known as the Dutch War or the Infidel War (1873–1904), was an armed military conflict between the Sultanate of Aceh and the Kingdom of the Netherlands which was triggered by discussions between representatives of Aceh and the United States in Singapore during early 1873. The war was part of a series of conflicts in the late 19th century that consolidated Dutch rule over modern-day Indonesia.

Location prov. of Aceh


* Foto’s of the Aceh war: link


General

The Aceh War, also known as the Dutch War or the Infidel War (1873–1904), was an armed military conflict between the Sultanate of Aceh and the Kingdom of the Netherlands which was triggered by discussions between representatives of Aceh and the United States in Singapore during early 1873. The war was part of a series of conflicts in the late 19th century that consolidated Dutch rule over modern-day Indonesia.

The campaign drew controversy in the Netherlands as photographs and accounts of the death toll were reported. Isolated insurgencies continued as late as 1914 and popular resistance continued into the World War II era.


Background

Following the 1869 opening of the Suez Canal and changing shipping routes, the British and Dutch signed the 1871 Anglo-Dutch Treaty of Sumatra which ended British territorial claims to Sumatra, allowing the Dutch a free hand within their sphere of influence in Maritime Southeast Asia while handing them the responsibility to check piracy. In return, Britain gained control of the Dutch Gold Coast in Africa and equal commercial rights in Siak.
Dutch territorial ambitions in Aceh were fuelled by a desire to exploit its natural resources, especially black pepper and oil, and to eliminate an independent native state player. The Dutch also sought to ward off other rival colonial powers that had ambitions in Southeast Asia, particularly the British and the French.


The War

The Dutch tried one strategy after another over the course of decades. In 1873 they tried a single rapid attack, but it failed. They then tried a naval blockade, reconciliation, concentration within a line of forts, then passive containment. They had scant success. Reaching 15 to 20 million guilders a year, the heavy spending for failed strategies nearly bankrupted the colonial government.

In 1903, the main secular Acehnese resistance leaders including Sultan Alauddin Muhammad Da’ud Syah II, Tuanku Raja Keumala, Mahmud and Muda Perkasa capitulated. By 1904 most of Aceh was under Dutch control, and had an indigenous government that cooperated with the colonial state.
On 10 January 1903 Sultan Muhammad Daud Syah surrended to the dutch.

The first Aceh War: 1873-1874
The second Aceh War: 1874-1880
The third Aceh War: 1881-1896
The fourth Aceh War: 1896-1910


Sultan Muhammad Daud Syah, 1864 – 6 February 1939

Sultan Alauddin Muhammad Da’ud Syah II (1864 – 6 February 1939) was the thirty-fifth and last sultan of Aceh in northern Sumatra. He reigned from 1875 to 1903. Despite long lasting resistance his rule ended up being conquered by the Dutch colonial state (Dutch East Indies).

On 10 January 1903 Sultan Muhammad Daud Syah met with the Dutch in the forest of Merasa Ië Leubeuë on 10 January 1903 and was taken to Kutaraja. Van Heutsz arranged for a highly publicized ceremony of surrender where a life-size photo of Queen Wilhelmina was displayed in the hall, and he received the sultan from a podium. Panglima Polem followed suit in September in the same year.
In 1907 it was revealed that the sultan had secretly helped plan attacks on Dutch positions. The colonial authorities therefore resolved to exile him to Java and then to Ambon Island. In 1918 he was allowed to settle in Meester Cornelis (Jatinegara) in Batavia. The ex-sultan died there on 6 February 1939 and is buried in Rawamangun. He left a son, Tuanku Raja Ibrahim, who died in 1982.


Source (english)

– Sultan Muhammad Daud Syah: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alauddin_Muhammad_Da%27ud_Syah_II
– Aceh War: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aceh_War

Source (only indon. language)

Perang Aceh Belanda 1873-1903: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perang_Aceh
Perang Aceh Belanda, 1873-1903: http://www.sejarahnusantara.com/sejarah-aceh/sejarah-perang-aceh-melawan-belanda-1873-1904-10038.htm
Perang Aceh: http://sejarahbudayanusantara.weebly.com/perang-aceh.html
Teuku Umar: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teuku_Umar
– Sultan Muhammad Daud Syah: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Daud_Syah_dari_Aceh


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