The kingdom of Gunung Setia is located on the island of Sumbawa, near Kebayan.
About the kingdom
It is estimated that Hindu-Buddhist religion flourished in the small kingdoms of Sumbawa about two hundred years before the entry of Majapahit Kingdom (between 1450-1540) to this Sumbawa region. Islam entered the island of Sumbawa in advance of the island of Lombok between the years 1450-1540 brought by Islamic traders from Java and Sumatra, especially Palembang.
Some of the kingdoms include: Dewa Mas Kuning Kingdom in Selesek (Ropang), Airenung Kingdom (Moyo Hulu), Kingdom of Sampar Semulan (Moyo Hulu), Kingdom of Gunung Setia (Sumbawa), Kingdom of Maja Paruwa (Utan), Kingdom Seran, Kingdom of Taliwang, and Kingdom of Jereweh.
In particular the people in this regency were not dominated by one tribe, but by several tribes. In the course of history it is very difficult to trace the original inhabitants, because the people in Sumbawa came from different regions. Tana Samawa, was at that time very open and had a variety of wealth, encouraging the movement of people from various regions. This estimate of the migration took place long before the time of the Sriwijaya kingdom, carried out by traders, fishermen, farmers, kiyai, etc. originating from different regions: the Malay peninsula, Aceh, Minang, Banten, Banjar, Java and Sulawesi. This is evidenced by the large number of ports that until now exist along the coast of Sumbawa. Until at one time found the various kingdoms that ever existed in this district, including Gunung Setia.
Kingdoms on Sumbawa
Short history of the island of Sumbawa
The 14th-century Nagarakretagama mentioned several principalities identified to be on Sumbawa; Dompu, Bima, Sape and Sang Hyang Api volcanic island just offcoast of northeast Sumbawa. Four principalities in western Sumbawa were dependencies of the Majapahit Empire of eastern Java. Because of Sumbawa’s natural resources, it was regularly invaded by outside forces – from Javanese, Balinese, Makassarese, Dutch and Japanese. The Dutch first arrived in 1605, but did not effectively rule Sumbawa until the early 20th century.
The Balinese kingdom of Gelgel ruled western Sumbawa for a short period as well. The eastern parts of the island were also home to the Sultanate of Bima, an Islamic polity that had links to Bugis and Makasarese people of South Sulawesi, as well as other Malay-Islamic polities in the archipelago.Historical evidence indicates that people on Sumbawa island were known in the East Indies for their honey, horses, sappan wood for producing red dye, and sandalwood used for incense and medications. The area was thought to be highly productive agriculturally.
In the 18th century, the Dutch introduced coffee plantation on the western slopes of Mount Tambora, a volcano on the north side of Sumbawa, thus creating the Tambora coffee variant. Tambora’s colossal eruption in 1815 was one of the most powerful of all time, ejecting 150 cubic kilometres (36 cu mi) of ash and debris into the atmosphere. The eruption killed up to 71,000 people and triggered a period of global cooling known as the “Year Without a Summer” in 1816. It also apparently destroyed a small culture of Southeast Asian affinity, known to archaeologists as the “Tambora culture”.
Old map of Sumbawa (Cambaua)
Klik here for old maps of Sumbawa 1598, 1606 Sumbawa / Nusantara, 1614, 1615, 1697 Sumbawa / Nusantara 1800-an, 1856, 1856, 1910.
Source Gunung Setia (only indon. language)
– Sejarah kerajaan Gunung Setia: https://ihinsolihin.wordpress.com/2014/01/09/lima-kerajaan-tertua-dan-terbesar-di-sumbawa/
– Sejarah kerajaan Gunung Setia: http://pepenk26.blogspot.nl/2011/12/catatan-dari-sumbawa.html
Source history island of Sumbawa (only indon. language)
– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: https://ihinsolihin.wordpress.com/artikel/sejarah-raja-pemerintahan-di-sumbawa/
– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: http://sejarahini.blogspot.co.id/2013/06/sejarah-singkat-pulau-sumbawa.html
– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: http://www.galeribudaya.com/2017/10/sejarah-pulau-sumbawa.html
– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: http://lsotour.blogspot.co.id/2012/01/sejarah-singkat-sumbawa.html