Kingdom of Gunung Galesa / Isl. of Sumbawa – Prov. Nusa Tenggara Barat

The kingdom of Gunung Galesa is located on the island of Sumbawa, in Olat Po, Moyo Hilir, kabupaten Sumbawa.

Island of Sumbawa

Location island of Sumbawa


* Foto kingdoms on Sumbawa: link
* Foto ancient sites on Sumbawa: link


About the kingdom

In the 14th and 15th centuries, in Sumbawa there were about 8 great empires with each of them having a satellite kingdom, namely:

NB: kerajaan = kingdom
1)     Kerajaan Utan Kadali di Utan,
2)     Kerajaan Seran di Seteluk, KSB,
3)     Kerajaan Taliwang, di KSB,
4)     Kerajaan Jereweh di KSB,
5)     Kerajaan Ngali, di Lape,
6)     Kerajaan Sampar Samulan di Moyo Hulu.
7)     Kerajaan Gunung Galesa, di Olat Po Moyo Hilir,
8)     Kerajaan Gunung Setia di Sumbawa.

Of the eight kingdoms, 5 of them are the oldest kingdoms: the Kingdom of Ngali, Utan Kadali, Sampar Samulan, Seran, and Taliwang. The kingdom of Ngali is estimated to exist in the 5th century. This kingdom is the oldest and largest kingdom in Sumbawa at that time with the territory covering the area of East Sumbawa and parts of South Sumbawa.

In particular the people in this regency were not dominated by one tribe, but several tribes. In the course of history it is very difficult to trace the original inhabitants, because the people in Sumbawa came from different regions. Tana Samawa, at that time is said to be very open and with a variety of wealth, encouraging the movement of people from various regions. This caused the migration long before the time of the Sriwijaya kingdom, carried out by traders, fishermen, farmers, kiyai, etc. originating from different regions: the Malay peninsula, Aceh, Minang, Banten, Banjar, Java and Sulawesi. This is evidenced by the large number of ports that until now exist along the coast of Sumbawa. Until at one time found the various kingdoms that ever existed in this district.

Map of kingdoms on Sumbawa


Short history of the island of Sumbawa

The 14th-century Nagarakretagama mentioned several principalities identified to be on Sumbawa; Dompu, Bima, Sape and Sang Hyang Api volcanic island just offcoast of northeast Sumbawa. Four principalities in western Sumbawa were dependencies of the Majapahit Empire of eastern Java. Because of Sumbawa’s natural resources, it was regularly invaded by outside forces – from Javanese, Balinese, Makassarese, Dutch and Japanese. The Dutch first arrived in 1605, but did not effectively rule Sumbawa until the early 20th century.
The Balinese kingdom of Gelgel ruled western Sumbawa for a short period as well. The eastern parts of the island were also home to the Sultanate of Bima, an Islamic polity that had links to Bugis and Makasarese people of South Sulawesi, as well as other Malay-Islamic polities in the archipelago.Historical evidence indicates that people on Sumbawa island were known in the East Indies for their honey, horses, sappan wood for producing red dye, and sandalwood used for incense and medications. The area was thought to be highly productive agriculturally.

In the 18th century, the Dutch introduced coffee plantation on the western slopes of Mount Tambora, a volcano on the north side of Sumbawa, thus creating the Tambora coffee variant. Tambora’s colossal eruption in 1815 was one of the most powerful of all time, ejecting 150 cubic kilometres (36 cu mi) of ash and debris into the atmosphere. The eruption killed up to 71,000 people and triggered a period of global cooling known as the “Year Without a Summer” in 1816. It also apparently destroyed a small culture of Southeast Asian affinity, known to archaeologists as the “Tambora culture”.


Old map of Sumbawa (Cambaua)

Klik here for old maps of Sumbawa 1598, 1606 Sumbawa / Nusantara, 1614, 1615, 1697 Sumbawa / Nusantara 1800-an, 1856, 1856, 1910.

Sumbawa 1615


Source Gunung Galesa (only indon. language)

– Sejarah kerajaan Gunung Galesa: https://ihinsolihin.wordpress.com/2014/01/09/lima-kerajaan-tertua-dan-terbesar-di-sumbawa/
– Latar belakang: http://pepenk26.blogspot.nl/2011/12/catatan-dari-sumbawa.html

Source history island of Sumbawa (only indon. language)

– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: https://ihinsolihin.wordpress.com/artikel/sejarah-raja-pemerintahan-di-sumbawa/
– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: http://sejarahini.blogspot.co.id/2013/06/sejarah-singkat-pulau-sumbawa.html
– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: http://www.galeribudaya.com/2017/10/sejarah-pulau-sumbawa.html
– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: http://lsotour.blogspot.co.id/2012/01/sejarah-singkat-sumbawa.html