The kingdom of Sawang was located on Sumatera, prov. Aceh, Sumatera, district Aceh Utara.
During the sultanate of Aceh this kingdom was a vassal or subordinate to the sultan of Aceh and was led by the king who had the title of Uleebalang.
After the end of the Aceh War, in 1914, Sawang entered Onderafdeling Lhokseumawe (Telok Seumawe), as “swapraja”.
District Aceh Utara
History of the kingdom of Sawang
In the period of war between the Kingdom of Aceh against the Dutch (1873-1903), Sawang played an important role in the struggle, Sultan Alaiddin Muhammad Daudsyah was in guerrilla during the aceh war.
The city was founded by his father, sultan Alaiddin Mansyursyah called Kuta Sawang and appointed a ruler T. Admiral Sawang (1870 – 1882).
Based on records that Dutch colonial government owned in 1900, Sawang country was an area under the protection of the Peusangan kingdom. Before 1870 Sawang was submissive to the kingdom Peusangan, but then became an independent country before it was finally ratified into a kingdom by Sultan Alaiddin Mansyursyah.
In 1882 there was a dispute within the royal family members of Sawang about the succession of the king of Sawang. Sawang’s ruler, T. Laksamana Sawang preferred his son T. Pang Benseh (known as Pang Buta because of his blind eye or also known as Commander Nyak Ben) succeeded him as king, but was challenged by his uncle T. Keujruen Gok Terjadilah. Finally T. Pang Benseh (Pang Buta) ascended the throne to become the ruling king of Sawang during the period 1882 – 1884. In the year between 1884/5, Pang Benseh (Pang Buta) died and was succeeded by his younger brother, Pang Mahmud (Panglima Muda Dalam Mahmud).
In 1898, Pang Mahmud was killed in a battle to defend the Kuta Sawang fortress from the invasion of the marsose colonies under the command of lieutenant Crisstoffel, but the troops failed to capture the Sultan and Sultan Alaidin Muhammad Daudsyah escaped from the siege of the marsose army through the territory Nisam (Blang Panyang). Now there was vacuum of power in the kingdom of Sawang, the wheels of total paralysis.
The Dutch were confused to determine the successor who would lead the next kingdom of Sawang. From the information obtained by the Dutch, that the commander Mahmud Sawang, had a younger brother who was still a teenager from another mother that is T. Keujruen Ali. It was decided by the Dutch to look for and appoint a man named T. Keujruen Ali as a successor, this was done so that the Dutch would get legitimacy and recognition from the sawang people, after the previous Dutch bombard and burn kuta sawang.
Initially T. Keujruen Ali declined the offer from the Dutch side. But on the basis of consideration as one of the youngest surviving son as a successor of the T. admiral Sawang, he finally accepted the offer from the Dutch. In 1904 the Dutch government set up infrastructure in krueng mane as the capital of preparation after kuta sawang burned down and also provided a permanent residence palace resident for the successor of the ruler of sawang, T. Keujruen Ali complete with facilities (photo insert condition palace resident ulee Balang sawang in krueng mane th. 1933, kitlv courtesy).
This was done by the Dutch government in order to make it easier to supervise and control the new successor T. Keujreuen Ali. Subsequently in 1905 the official capital of Sawang was transferred to Krueng Mane. In 1933, power moved into the hands of his eldest son T. Loethan, who served as Ulee Balang’s last royal Sawang in Krueng Mane (1933 – 1954). In 1954 T. Loethan died of illness after first his two sons T.M. Noer and T.M Usman who was still teenagers slaughtered in Aceh’s social revolution (war cumboek) in 1946, ended the reign of dynasty (trah) Keujruen Ali.
The palace of the kingdom
The palace was located in Krueng Mane, kec. Muara batu, district Aceh Utara.
About the small kingdoms under the sultanate of Aceh
The western part of the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam was opened and built in the 16th century on the initiative of Sultan Saidil Mukamil (Sultan of Aceh who lived between 1588-1604), followed by Sultan Iskandar Muda (Sultan of Aceh who lived in 1607-1636) the Acehnese Rayeuk and Pidie.
The first bustling area was at Meulaboh bay (Pasi Karam) ruled by a king who was titled Teuku Keujruen Meulaboh, and Negeri Daya (District Jaya) which at the end of the 15th century had established a kingdom with its king is Sultan Salatin Alaidin Riayat Shah with the title Poteu Meureuhom Daya.
The area of West Aceh at the end of the 17th century had developed into several small kingdoms led by a Uleebalang, namely: Kluang; Lamno; Kuala Lambeusoe; Kuala Daya; Kuala Unga; Babah Awe, and many more.
The structure of government of the small kingdoms
1) Gampong, the leader was called Geucik or Keuchik. The smallest territorial area of the government structure in Aceh was the Gampong. A Gampong consisted of groups of houses adjacent to each other.
The leader of the gampong was called Geucik or Keuchik, who was assisted by a proficient in religious matters, as Teungku Meunasah.
2) Mukim, the leader was called Imum Mukim. The larger territorial area of government was the Mukim. The Mukim was a combination of several gampongs, which were located nearby.
The leader of Mukim was called Imum Mukim. He was the one who coordinated the village (gampong) heads or Keuchik-Keuchik.
3) Sago or Sagoe, the leader was called Commander Sagoe or Panglima Sagi. In the Aceh region of Rayeuk (District Aceh Besar now), was a form of government called Sagoe or Sagi. The entire region of Aceh Rayeuk was incorporated into three Sagi, which can be regarded as three federations. The three Sagoe or Sagi were named:
1. Sagi XXII Mukim, consisted of 22 mukim.
2. Siva XXV Mukim, consisted of 25 mukim
3. Sagi XXVI Mukim, consisted of 26 Mukim
The leader was called Panglima Sagoe or Panglima Sagi, from generation to generation, they also hold the title of Uleebalang.
They were appointed as Panglima Sagi by the Sultan of Aceh, who gave them a stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh known as Cap Sikureung.
4) Nangroe, the leader was called Uleebalang. Another form of royal territory found in Aceh was called Nangroe or Negeri. This Nangroe was actually a conquered area of the Kingdom of Aceh and was located outside Aceh Inti or Aceh Rayeuk.
The leadership of Nangroe was called Uleebalang, which was established by tradition for generations.
The Uleebalang was the Head of State of the small kingdoms who were very powerful. However, when they assume the position of Uleebalang in their area, they had to be approved by the Sultan of Aceh. The Appointment Letter was called Sarakata and stamped with the stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh, Cap Sikureung.
5) The Sultan. The highest level in the government structure of the Kingdom of Aceh was the central government based in the royal capital, formerly known as Bandar Aceh Dar as Salam. The head of the central government was the Sultan who had the title of Tuanku.
Map of the small kingdoms in Aceh 1917
Source (only indon. language)
– Uleebalang di Aceh: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kesultanan_Aceh#Ul.C3.A8.C3.ABbalang_.26_Pembagian_Wilayah
– Uleebalang di kesultanan Aceh: https://www.kompasiana.com/ruslan./siapakah-uleebalang_552c324c6ea83444128b4580
– Sejarah Uleebalang: https://www.facebook.com/boy.adityamawardi/posts/771874096190147
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://febasfi.blogspot.co.id/2012/11/struktur-atau-lembaga-pemerintahan.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://helmiyymailcom.blogspot.co.id/2012/10/struktur-pemerintahaan-kerajaan-aceh.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://wartasejarah.blogspot.co.id/2013/07/kerajaan-aceh.html
– Tentang uleebalang: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ul%C3%A8%C3%ABbalang