Kingdom of Tarumanagara / West Java

The Kingdom of Tarumanagara: 358 – 699. Located on West Java.

West Java


* Foto sultans and kings, today on Jawa: link
* Foto keratons (palaces) on Jawa: link
* Foto Batavia (Jakarta) in the past: link

* Foto Jawa in the past: link
* Attack of Batavia by Sultan Agung, 1628/1628: link
* Foto Diponegoro – war, 1825: link

* Foto old sites on Jawa: link


History of the kingdom

Tarumanagara or Taruma Kingdom or just Taruma was an early Sundanese kingdom, whose 5th-century ruler, Purnawarman, produced the earliest known inscriptions on Java island. The kingdom was located not far from modern Jakarta, and according to Tugu inscription Purnavarman apparently built a canal that changed the course of the Cakung River, and drained a coastal area for agriculture and settlement. In his inscriptions, Purnavarman associated himself with Vishnu, and Brahmins ritually secured the hydraulic project. Tarumanagara is believed existed between 358–669 CE in Western Java region, in and around modern day Bogor, Bekasi and Jakarta, roughly corresponds to modern Greater Jakarta area.

The earliest known written records of Tarumanagara existence were inscribed in stone inscriptions. Inscribed stone is called prasasti in Indonesian. Numbers of stone inscriptions dated from Tarumanagara period were discovered in Western Java region.

After 670, Tarumanagara was divided into two kingdoms: Sunda Kingdom and Galuh Kingdom with the Citarum river as the boundary. Then Galuh Kingdom comprised many vassal kingdoms which covered areas of present-day West and present-day Central Java Provinces.
– Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarumanagara

The Ciaruteun inscription or Ciampea inscription was found on the banks of the Ciaruteun river, not far from the Ci Sadane river, Bogor. The inscription is a relic of the Tarumanagara kingdom.


Evidence of existing of kingdom of Tarumanagara

The evidence of the existence of Taruma Kingdom is known by seven stone inscriptions found. Five in Bogor, one in Jakarta and one in Lebak Banten. From these inscriptions it is known that the kingdom was led by Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman in 358 AD and he reigned until 382 AD Tomb of Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman was around the river Gomati (Bekasi area). The Kingdom of Tarumanegara is a continuation of the Kingdom of Salakanagara.
These 7 stone-inscriptions are:
1) Prasasti Kebon Kopi,  400 M (H Kern 1917),
2) Prasasti Tugu, found in Kampung Batutumbu, Desa Tugu, Kecamatan Tarumajaya, Kabupaten Bekasi, now in the museum of Jakarta.
3) Prasasti Cidanghiyang atau Prasasti Munjul,found in the river Cidanghi,
4) Prasasti Ciaruteun, Ciampea, Bogor.
5) Prasasti Muara Cianten, Ciampea, Bogor.
6) Prasasti Jambu, Nanggung, Bogor
7) Prasasti Pasir Awi, Citeureup, Bogor

Location kingdom of Tarumanagara

Click to enlarge --- klik untuk memperbesar


First rulers

According to the book Nusantara, Maharshi Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman founded the Tarumanagara kingdom in 358. Jayasingawarman originated from Salankayana, India that collapsed after the invasion of Samudragupta from Gupta Empire. After re-settling in Western Java, he married a Sundanese princess daughter of King Dewawarman VIII of Salakanagara. He died in 382 and was buried at the bank of Kali Gomati river (present-day Bekasi city). His son, Dharmayawarman ruled from 382 to 395. His burial site is at Chandrabaga river. His grandson Purnawarman was the third king of Tarumanagara and reigned from 395 to 434.
– Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarumanagara


List of rulers

  • Jayasingawarman, 358 – 382
  • Dharmayawarman, 382 to 395. His burial site is at Chandrabaga river.
  • Purnawarman, 395 – 434. Produced large numbers of inscriptions
  • Wisnuwarman, 434 – 455
  • Indrawarman, 455 – 515
  • Candrawarman, 515 – 535
  • Suryawarman, 535 – 561. Established new capital, left old capital of Sundapura, a new settlement was established inland in Kendan near modern Garut
  • Kertawarman, 561 – 628. Establishment of Tarumanagara’s colony Galuh Kingdom in 612 by Wretikandayun, the grandson of Manikmaya.
  • Linggawarman, 628 – 650. Marriage arrangement with Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa of Srivijaya and the second daughter of King Linggawarman, Princess Sobakancana.
  • Tarusbawa, c. 670 – 690. Disintegration of Tarumanagara into Sunda Kingdom and Galuh Kingdom and independence of Galuh. Srivijayan invasion according to Kota Kapur inscription.

Batujaya Temple Complex in Karawang

The Batujaya temple complex was built around the 5-7 century AD, older than Borobudur Temple. The relics of Buddhist civilization in Karawang, West Java, were discovered in 1984. However, even though the location is only 50 km from DKI Jakarta, this ancient relic is not well known to the public.

Even though this Buddhist temple, which is a legacy of an ancient civilization around the Citarum River, is very special. According to Hasan Djafar, there is no culture in Indonesia that is as old and advanced as Batujaya Temple.

It is called advanced because the temple building material is bricks made of clay mixed with rice husks, heated at a temperature of 700 degrees Celsius with even maturity. As a result, the brick has been able to last until now or more than 1,500 years.

The advancement of temple-building technology can also be seen from the discovery of stucco (wajralepa) in almost every ruins of the temple building. Stucco is a kind of white plaster made from chalk and shell shards.


Source (english)

– History of Tarumanagara: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarumanagara
– Prasasti Tugu (inscriptions): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugu_inscription


Purnawarman or Purnavarman is the 5th century king of Tarumanagara, a Hindu Indianized kingdom, located in modern day West Java.

———————-

  The Ciaruteun inscription or Ciampea inscription was found on the bank of the Ciarunteun river, near the mouth of the Cisadane river, Bogor. The inscription uses Pallawa letters and Sanskrit which consists of 4 lines arranged into Sloka form with Anustubh meter. In addition, there is a painting of a kind of spider and a pair of feet of King Purnawarman.

———————-

The Tugu inscription is one of the inscriptions originating from the Tarumanagara Kingdom. Found in Kampung Batutumbu, Bekasi, now stored in a museum in Jakarta. The inscription describes the excavation of the Candrabaga River by Rajadirajaguru and the excavation of the Gomati River along the 6112 spear or 12km by Purnawarman in the 22nd year of his reign. The excavation of the river was an idea to avoid natural disasters in the form of floods that often occurred during Purnawarman’s reign, and drought that occurred. occurs during the dry season.

———————-

The Pasir Awi inscription is located on the southern slope of the Pasir Awi hill (± 559m above sea level) in the hilly forest area of Cipamingkis, Bogor Regency. The Pasir Awi inscription is engraved with a picture of a branch with twigs and leaves as well as fruit (not characters) and also an image of a pair of feet.


 

 

Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com.

%d bloggers like this: