Kingdom of Suwung / Isl. of Lombok – Prov. Nusa Tenggara Barat

The kingdom (Kedatuan) of Suwung was located on the island of Lombok.

Island of Lombok

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Location island of Lombok


* Foto intervention of the dutch on Lombok, 1894: link
* Foto Sasak tribe: link
* Foto old sites on Lombok: link


History of the kingdom of Suwung

According to Babad Lombok, the oldest kingdom (9th century?) on the island of Lombok was named Laeq Kingdom. But, another source, namely Babad Suwung states, that the oldest kingdom in Lombok was the kingdom of Suwung, ruled by the King Betara Indera. After the Suwung Kingdom was receding, the Kingdom of Lombok appeared. Which one is right, Laeq or Suwung? Everything is still in debate.
Migration took place, Laeq people moved and build a new empire, the kingdom of Pamatan, in Aikmel, Sembalun village now. The location of this village is adjacent to Mount Rinjani. One day, Mount Rinjani erupted, destroying the surrounding villages and kingdoms. The villagers spread to the safe area. The move marked the end of the Pamatan Kingdom.
After the end of the kingdom of Padang, came the kingdom of Suwung, founded by Batara Indera. The location is in the Perigi area today. After the kingdom of Suwung ended, then came the kingdom of Lombok.


History of the kingdoms on Lombok

According to the contents of Babad Lombok, the oldest kingdom that once ruled on Lombok, was named kingdom of Laeq (in sasak laeq means past time), but another source namely Babad Suwung, declared that the oldest kingdom in Lombok was the Kingdom of Suwung, built and led by King Betara Indera. The kingdom of Suwung then was replaced by the kingdom of Lombok. In the 9th century until the 11th century existed the Sasak Kingdom which was later defeated by one of the kingdoms, who came from Bali at that time.

In Lombok, in its development, there are traces of the four main kingdoms, namely the Kingdom of Bayan in the west, Selaparang Kingdom in the East, Langko Kingdom in the middle, and Pejanggik Kingdom in the south. In addition to these four kingdoms, there were small kingdoms, such as Parwa and Sokong and several small villages, such as Pujut, Tempit, Kedaro, Batu Dendeng, Kuripan, Samarkaton and Kentawang. All these kingdoms and villages became independent territory after the Majapahit kingdom collapsed. Among the most prominent and most famous kingdoms and villages was the Lombok Kingdom based in Labuhan Lombok.

The Dutch had first visited Lombok in 1674 and the Dutch East India Company concluded its first treaty with the Sasak Princess of Lombok. The Balinese had managed to take over the whole island by 1750, but Balinese infighting resulted in the island being split into four feuding Balinese kingdoms. In 1838, the Mataram kingdom brought its rivals under control.

During one of the many Sasak peasant rebellions against the Balinese, Sasak chiefs sent envoys to the Dutch in Bali and invited them to rule Lombok. In June 1894, the governor general of the Dutch East Indies, Van der Wijck, signed a treaty with Sasak rebels in eastern Lombok. He sent a large army to Lombok and the Balinese raja capitulated to Dutch demands. (see Dutch intervention in Lombok) The younger princes however overruled the raja and attacked and pushed back the Dutch. The Dutch counterattacked overrunning Mataram and the raja surrendered. The entire island was annexed to the Netherlands East Indies in 1895. The Dutch ruled over Lombok’s 500,000 people with a force of no more than 250 by cultivating the support of the Balinese and Sasak aristocracy. The Dutch are remembered in Lombok as liberators from Balinese hegemony.


Wetu Telu

Wetu Telu (Indonesian: Waktu Tiga) is the unique practice of some Sasak people in practicing Islam, which only practices the three pillars of Islam, namely reading the two sentences of the creed, praying and fasting. The three pillars of Islam are sufficiently carried out by the kyai as the religious leader who connects them with Allah. They also believe in the existence of holy spirits of their ancestors and supernatural powers on objects.


Entrance of Islam on Lombok

Prior to the entry of Islam, the people who inhabit Lombok consecutively believed animism, dynamism and then Hinduism. Islam first entered through the “wali” of the island of Java, namely sunan Prapen in about the 16th century, after the collapse of the Majapahit kingdom.
In conveying the teachings of Islam, the wali’s did not necessarily eliminate the old habits of people, who still embraced the old faith. There was even acculturation between Islam and the culture of the local community, because the spreaders were using local customs to facilitate the delivery of Islam. The religious teachings of that day were rewritten in Old Javanese. Even the shahadah for the Wetu Telu followers was accompanied by a sentence in Old Javanese. In those days, those who were required to perform the worship. were the kiai.When the kingdom of Lombok was led by king Rangkesari, Prince Prapen, son of Sunan Ratu Giri, came to Islamize the kingdom of Lombok. In Babad Lombok is mentioned, this Islamic is an effort of Raden Paku or Sunan Ratu Giri from Gersik, Surabaya who ordered the kings of East Java and Palembang to spread Islam to various regions in the archipelago. The process of Islam by Sunan Prapen got a lively result, until several years later the whole island of Lombok embraced Islam, except for some places that still retain the old customs.


Source Kedatuan Suwung (only indon. language)

– Tentang kerajaan Suwung: http://gdefik.blogspot.co.id/2012/10/sejarah-baru-lombok-dan-bali.html
Sejarah kerajaan Suwung: http://lombok-indah.weebly.com/sejarah-singkat-lombok.html

Source old kingdoms on Lombok (only indon. language)

– Sejarah Kedatuan kuno Sasak: http://suparmanol.blogspot.co.id/2010/12/sejarah-kedatuan-sasak.html
– Sejarah Kedatuan kuno Sasak: http://gdefik.blogspot.co.id/2012/10/kedatuan-di-gumi-sasak-1.html
– Sejarah pulau Lombok di Wiki:  https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulau_Lombok#Sejarah

Source entering Islam on Lombok (only indon. language)

– Masuk Islam di Lombok: http://fadlisworld.blogspot.co.id/2014/09/sejarah-masuknya-islam-di-lombok.html
– Masuk Islam di Lombok: http://situs9.blogspot.co.id/2014/08/masuk-dan-berkembangnya-agama-islam-di.html


 

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