Kingdom of Pagutan / Isl. of Lombok – Prov. Nusa Tenggara Barat

The kingdom (Kedatuan) of Pagutan was located on the island of Lombok. 17th Century.

Island of Lombok

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Lokation island of Lombok


– List of the kingdoms on Lombok: link


– Video history kingdoms on Lombok and NTB: link


* Foto intervention of the dutch on Lombok, 1894: link
* Foto Sasak tribe: link
* Foto old sites on Lombok: link


History of the kingdom of Pagutan, 17th century

From the beginning Bali wanted to occupy the western part of Lombok by sending its people on a large scale. The victory obtained at Tanak Beaq and the agreement of East Juring and West Juring means the kingdom of Karangasem Bali had an increasingly steady position on Lombok.
When Karangasem came to power over Lombok, a group of Balinese came to Lombok led by the triumvirate of I Gusti Ketut Karangasem, the younger brother of Karangasem as group leader, Pedanda Gde Ketut Subali as religious leader, and Mas Poleng as administrators of development issues and agriculture. The Singasari kingdom was founded (Karangasem Sasak) because the Balinese people were getting more and more on Lombok.
Finally, the Balinese in their territory established several villages which were small royal kingdoms such as the Singasari kingdom (Karangasem Sasak) with its king Anak Agung Ngurah Made Karang (1720 AD), the kingdom of Mataram, with its king named Raja and Anak Bangsawan Anak Agung Bagus Jelantik, Kingdom of Pagesangan, with its king named Anak Agung Nyoman Karang, Pagutan kingdom, with its king named Anak Agung Wayan Sidemen, and Sengkongo kingdom, with its king named Anak Agung Ketut Rai B.


History of the kingdoms on Lombok

According to the contents of Babad Lombok, the oldest kingdom that once ruled on Lombok, was named kingdom of Laeq (in sasak laeq means past time), but another source namely Babad Suwung, declared that the oldest kingdom in Lombok was the Kingdom of Suwung, built and led by King Betara Indera. The kingdom of Suwung then was replaced by the kingdom of Lombok. In the 9th century until the 11th century existed the Sasak Kingdom which was later defeated by one of the kingdoms, who came from Bali at that time.

In Lombok, in its development, there are traces of the four main kingdoms, namely the Kingdom of Bayan in the west, Selaparang Kingdom in the East, Langko Kingdom in the middle, and Pejanggik Kingdom in the south. In addition to these four kingdoms, there were small kingdoms, such as Parwa and Sokong and several small villages, such as Pujut, Tempit, Kedaro, Batu Dendeng, Kuripan, Samarkaton and Kentawang. All these kingdoms and villages became independent territory after the Majapahit kingdom collapsed. Among the most prominent and most famous kingdoms and villages was the Lombok Kingdom based in Labuhan Lombok.

The Dutch had first visited Lombok in 1674 and the Dutch East India Company concluded its first treaty with the Sasak Princess of Lombok. The Balinese had managed to take over the whole island by 1750, but Balinese infighting resulted in the island being split into four feuding Balinese kingdoms. In 1838, the Mataram kingdom brought its rivals under control.

During one of the many Sasak peasant rebellions against the Balinese, Sasak chiefs sent envoys to the Dutch in Bali and invited them to rule Lombok. In June 1894, the governor general of the Dutch East Indies, Van der Wijck, signed a treaty with Sasak rebels in eastern Lombok. He sent a large army to Lombok and the Balinese raja capitulated to Dutch demands. (see Dutch intervention in Lombok) The younger princes however overruled the raja and attacked and pushed back the Dutch. The Dutch counterattacked overrunning Mataram and the raja surrendered. The entire island was annexed to the Netherlands East Indies in 1895. The Dutch ruled over Lombok’s 500,000 people with a force of no more than 250 by cultivating the support of the Balinese and Sasak aristocracy. The Dutch are remembered in Lombok as liberators from Balinese hegemony.


Wetu Telu

Wetu Telu (Indonesian: Waktu Tiga) is the unique practice of some Sasak people in practicing Islam, which only practices the three pillars of Islam, namely reading the two sentences of the creed, praying and fasting. The three pillars of Islam are sufficiently carried out by the kyai as the religious leader who connects them with Allah. They also believe in the existence of holy spirits of their ancestors and supernatural powers on objects.


Entrance of Islam on Lombok

Prior to the entry of Islam, the people who inhabit Lombok consecutively believed animism, dynamism and then Hinduism. Islam first entered through the “wali” of the island of Java, namely sunan Prapen in about the 16th century, after the collapse of the Majapahit kingdom.
In conveying the teachings of Islam, the wali’s did not necessarily eliminate the old habits of people, who still embraced the old faith. There was even acculturation between Islam and the culture of the local community, because the spreaders were using local customs to facilitate the delivery of Islam. The religious teachings of that day were rewritten in Old Javanese. Even the shahadah for the Wetu Telu followers was accompanied by a sentence in Old Javanese. In those days, those who were required to perform the worship. were the kiai.When the kingdom of Lombok was led by king Rangkesari, Prince Prapen, son of Sunan Ratu Giri, came to Islamize the kingdom of Lombok. In Babad Lombok is mentioned, this Islamic is an effort of Raden Paku or Sunan Ratu Giri from Gersik, Surabaya who ordered the kings of East Java and Palembang to spread Islam to various regions in the archipelago. The process of Islam by Sunan Prapen got a lively result, until several years later the whole island of Lombok embraced Islam, except for some places that still retain the old customs.


Source old kingdoms on Lombok (only indon. language)

– Sejarah Kedatuan kuno Sasak: http://suparmanol.blogspot.co.id/2010/12/sejarah-kedatuan-sasak.html
– Sejarah Kedatuan kuno Sasak: http://gdefik.blogspot.co.id/2012/10/kedatuan-di-gumi-sasak-1.html
– Sejarah pulau Lombok di Wiki:  https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulau_Lombok#Sejarah

Source entering Islam on Lombok (only indon. language)

– Masuk Islam di Lombok: http://fadlisworld.blogspot.co.id/2014/09/sejarah-masuknya-islam-di-lombok.html
– Masuk Islam di Lombok: http://situs9.blogspot.co.id/2014/08/masuk-dan-berkembangnya-agama-islam-di.html


 

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