The kingdom (keulebalangan) of Samalangan is located on Sumatera, provinsi Aceh, District Bireuen.
Samalangan became a kingdom in 1613.
During the sultanate of Aceh this kingdom was a vassal or subordinate to the sultan of Aceh and was led by the king who had the title of Uleebalang.
After the end of the Aceh War, in 1914, the small kingdoms entered a Onderafdeling as “swapraja”.
About the king of Samalangan today (2017)
Left: king of Samalangan, right: king of Kluet
History of the kingdom of Samalangan
Tun Seri Lanang became the first Uleebalang (King) of Samalanga in 1613 to 1659. Samalanga was a small area consisting of 9 regions, 3 of which were in the Pidie mukim area, Ulim, Bandar Dua and Jangka Buya. While 6 more mukim were in the Bireun region namely Samalanga, Simpang Mamplam, Pandrah, Jeunib, Peudada and July. There were 84 kampongs (gampongs) who joined 5 mukim in Samalanga with a population of approximately 42,506 people, 97% being farmers, 1% are civil servants and 2% traders.
The coronation of Tun Sri Lanang as king of Samalanga got popular support, because besides he was an expert in the field of government and he was also pious in the science of religion he is also a Waliyullah. Sultan Iskandar Muda expected that the appointment would help the development of Islam on the east coast of Aceh.
When Van Der Heijden was appointed as Governor / Commander of War for Aceh, his first target was to conquer Samalanga. In 1876 Van Heijden attacked Samalanga by deploying the forces of three army battalions.
Samalanga fighters could not be defeated, then in 1877 the Dutch re-arrange the invading force by involving three army battalions, marines and cannon troops plus 900 punishments who were included in the attack. After a month of fighting, the Dutch could only control Blang Themulir near the town of Samalanga.
The king Samalanga Teuku Chik Bugis and Pocut Meuligoe were still in full control, even though the Dutch had mastered. The Dutch did not dare to approach the fortress of Gle Batee Iliek.
One year after Samalanga’s loneliness from the war, on June 30, 1880, Letna Van Woortman arrived with 65 men and tried to infiltrate Bneteng Kuta Gle Batee Iliek. However, they arrived at Cot Meureak (about 2 Km to the north of Betee Iliek) to the 65 Dutch troops in the presence of Gerilia Aceh troops.
In that incident many Dutch soldiers died and were seriously injured. This event was immediately submitted to Banda Aceh. Governor Van Der Heijden was furious because his soldiers were lost. So on July 13, 1880, Van Der Heijden again sent his massive expedition to Samalanga to attack the Kuta Bantle Gle Betee Iliek.
The former residence of the first king of Samalanga’s, known as Rumoh Krueng (River House). To the left, about 50 meters away, are buried the remains of Tun Sri Lanang and his people, at a simple cemetery complex.
This house is a typical Aceh stage house. At the bottom, placed several tables where the guard entertain visitors.
* Foto palace of Samalangan: link
About the small kingdoms under the sultanate of Aceh
The western part of the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam was opened and built in the 16th century on the initiative of Sultan Saidil Mukamil (Sultan of Aceh who lived between 1588-1604), followed by Sultan Iskandar Muda (Sultan of Aceh who lived in 1607-1636) the Acehnese Rayeuk and Pidie.
The first bustling area was at Meulaboh bay (Pasi Karam) ruled by a king who was titled Teuku Keujruen Meulaboh, and Negeri Daya (District Jaya) which at the end of the 15th century had established a kingdom with its king is Sultan Salatin Alaidin Riayat Shah with the title Poteu Meureuhom Daya.
The area of West Aceh at the end of the 17th century had developed into several small kingdoms led by a Uleebalang, namely: Kluang; Lamno; Kuala Lambeusoe; Kuala Daya; Kuala Unga; Babah Awe, and many more.
The structure of government of the small kingdoms
1) Gampong, the leader was called Geucik or Keuchik. The smallest territorial area of the government structure in Aceh was the Gampong. A Gampong consisted of groups of houses adjacent to each other.
The leader of the gampong was called Geucik or Keuchik, who was assisted by a proficient in religious matters, as Teungku Meunasah.
2) Mukim, the leader was called Imum Mukim. The larger territorial area of government was the Mukim. The Mukim was a combination of several gampongs, which were located nearby.
The leader of Mukim was called Imum Mukim. He was the one who coordinated the village (gampong) heads or Keuchik-Keuchik.
3) Sago or Sagoe, the leader was called Commander Sagoe or Panglima Sagi. In the Aceh region of Rayeuk (District Aceh Besar now), was a form of government called Sagoe or Sagi. The entire region of Aceh Rayeuk was incorporated into three Sagi, which can be regarded as three federations. The three Sagoe or Sagi were named:
1. Sagi XXII Mukim, consisted of 22 mukim.
2. Siva XXV Mukim, consisted of 25 mukim
3. Sagi XXVI Mukim, consisted of 26 Mukim
The leader was called Panglima Sagoe or Panglima Sagi, from generation to generation, they also hold the title of Uleebalang.
They were appointed as Panglima Sagi by the Sultan of Aceh, who gave them a stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh known as Cap Sikureung.
4) Nangroe, the leader was called Uleebalang. Another form of royal territory found in Aceh was called Nangroe or Negeri. This Nangroe was actually a conquered area of the Kingdom of Aceh and was located outside Aceh Inti or Aceh Rayeuk.
The leadership of Nangroe was called Uleebalang, which was established by tradition for generations.
The Uleebalang was the Head of State of the small kingdoms who were very powerful. However, when they assume the position of Uleebalang in their area, they had to be approved by the Sultan of Aceh. The Appointment Letter was called Sarakata and stamped with the stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh, Cap Sikureung.
5) The Sultan. The highest level in the government structure of the Kingdom of Aceh was the central government based in the royal capital, formerly known as Bandar Aceh Dar as Salam. The head of the central government was the Sultan who had the title of Tuanku.
Map of the small kingdoms in Aceh 1917
Source Samalangan (only indon. language)
– Tentang Tun Seri Lanang: https://samalangaraya.wordpress.com/seujarah/kerajaan-samalanga/
– Sejarah kerajaan Samalangan: http://saatnya-ngopi.blogspot.co.id/2014/12/rumoh-krung-di-samalanga.html
– Sejarah kerajaan Samalangan: http://sejarahnaggro.blogspot.co.id/2016/06/sejarah-samalanga.html
– Sejarah raja pertama Samalangan, Tun Sri Lanang: http://namsamedia.blogspot.co.id/2016/08/ketahuilah-raja-pertama-di-samalanga.html
– Sejarah raja pertama Samalangan, Tun Sri Lanang: http://kebudayaan.kemdikbud.go.id/bpcbaceh/2014/02/02/352/