About the kingdom
It is estimated that Hindu-Buddhist religion has grown rapidly in the small kingdoms on Sumbawa Island about 200 years before the invasion of Majapahit Kingdom between 1450-1540 in this region. Some of these kingdoms are the Kingdom of Dewa Mas Kuning in Selesek (Ropang), the Kingdom of Airenung (Moyo Hulu), the Kingdom of Sampar Semulan (Moyo Hulu), the Kingdom of Gunung Setia (Sumbawa), the Kingdom of Dewa Maja Paruwa (Utan), the Kingdom of Seran (Hercules), the Kingdom of Taliwang, and the Kingdom of Jereweh.
The kingdom of Taliwang consisteded of 3 kingdoms, namely Jereweh Kingdom led by King Magaparang, Kingdom of Taliwang led by Datu Taliwang and Seran Kingdom led by Datu Seran.
Kemutar Telu, the kingdoms of Seran, Taliwang and Jereweh had as a symbol of shelter under the rule of the Kingdom of Sumbawa eight kinds of obligations, according to the customary term “Sonang lawang blau balu” (through door eight) namely:
* First: Nguri (an offering of money in a certain number according to the position of each official to the king, if the King overwritten / like.
* Second: Join kuta (fort) of Sumbawa country, make “In” wall and collect logs.
* Third: Collecting cloth and people, and join the King when visiting Makassar.
* Fourth: Bring delivery (customary term: perisi or press tonang) and attend the death ceremony.
* Fifth: Equal to four at the marriage ceremony, circumcision and so on.
* Sixth: Make work on dams and gullies with people from Mata to Sekongkang
* Seventh: Give help in case of war
* Eighth: Pay the coffin money.
Kingdoms on Sumbawa
Short history of the island of Sumbawa
The 14th-century Nagarakretagama mentioned several principalities identified to be on Sumbawa; Dompu, Bima, Sape and Sang Hyang Api volcanic island just offcoast of northeast Sumbawa. Four principalities in western Sumbawa were dependencies of the Majapahit Empire of eastern Java. Because of Sumbawa’s natural resources, it was regularly invaded by outside forces – from Javanese, Balinese, Makassarese, Dutch and Japanese. The Dutch first arrived in 1605, but did not effectively rule Sumbawa until the early 20th century.
The Balinese kingdom of Gelgel ruled western Sumbawa for a short period as well. The eastern parts of the island were also home to the Sultanate of Bima, an Islamic polity that had links to Bugis and Makasarese people of South Sulawesi, as well as other Malay-Islamic polities in the archipelago.Historical evidence indicates that people on Sumbawa island were known in the East Indies for their honey, horses, sappan wood for producing red dye, and sandalwood used for incense and medications. The area was thought to be highly productive agriculturally.
In the 18th century, the Dutch introduced coffee plantation on the western slopes of Mount Tambora, a volcano on the north side of Sumbawa, thus creating the Tambora coffee variant. Tambora’s colossal eruption in 1815 was one of the most powerful of all time, ejecting 150 cubic kilometres (36 cu mi) of ash and debris into the atmosphere. The eruption killed up to 71,000 people and triggered a period of global cooling known as the “Year Without a Summer” in 1816. It also apparently destroyed a small culture of Southeast Asian affinity, known to archaeologists as the “Tambora culture”.
Old map of Sumbawa (Cambaua)
Klik here for old maps of Sumbawa 1598, 1606 Sumbawa / Nusantara, 1614, 1615, 1697 Sumbawa / Nusantara 1800-an, 1856, 1856, 1910.
Source Jereweh (only indon. language)
– Tentang kerajaan Jereweh: http://disparekraf.sumbawabaratkab.go.id/makam-datu-seran.html
– Tentang kerajaan Jereweh: https://kombotaliwang.wordpress.com/sejarah/
– Tentang kerajaan Jereweh: https://ihinsolihin.wordpress.com/2014/01/09/lima-kerajaan-tertua-dan-terbesar-di-sumbawa/
Source history island of Sumbawa (only indon. language)
– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: https://ihinsolihin.wordpress.com/artikel/sejarah-raja-pemerintahan-di-sumbawa/
– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: http://sejarahini.blogspot.co.id/2013/06/sejarah-singkat-pulau-sumbawa.html
– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: http://www.galeribudaya.com/2017/10/sejarah-pulau-sumbawa.html
– Sejarah pulau Sumbawa: http://lsotour.blogspot.co.id/2012/01/sejarah-singkat-sumbawa.html