Manggarai, history of the region Manggarai / Isl. of Flores – Prov. Nusa Tenggara Timur

The region of Manggarai is located on the west part of the island of Flores.

Location island of Flores

Island Flores


* Foto of the region of and kingdoms of Manggarai: link
* Foto old Flores and ancient sites: link


History of the region of Manggarai

The article below was written by Vianney Andro Prasetyo, an alumni of the Australian National University.
Source:  http://www.floresa.co/2016/05/02/potret-sejarah-manggarai-dalam-sejarah-nusantara-sebuah-studi-literatur/

The western area of Flores (Manggarai) in the past was ruled by the Bima Kingdom until early 1900. Bima became the Islamic Kingdom because of the influence of the Sultanate of Gowa which embraced Islam in 1605 and later formed the Sultanate of Makassar. Bima which was conquered by Gowa converted to Islam. As a conquered area, Bima send tribute to the Gowa ruler.

This situation lasted until the year 1667 when there was the Bungaya Agreement between the VOC and the Kingdom of Gowa which at that time controlled Bandar Makassar. Gowa which felt harmed by the treaty, continued to fight under Sultan Hasanuddin’s leadership until it was finally defeated by the VOC in 1669. This war is known as the War of Makassar (1666-1669).
Areas that managed to escape from the power of Gowa due to this agreement and war were Makassar, Bone and Bima. In 1669, Bima subsequently surrendered and signed a trade agreement with the VOC. Furthermore, Bima became the sole ruler of Manggarai recognized by the VOC (Daeng 1995).

In the 1700s or perhaps earlier, in Manggarai there was a system of government from three large groups of people, namely Todo, Cibal and Bajo. In 1727, a son of the Sultan of Bima married a Princess from the Sultanate of Makassar, Daughter Daughter Tamima.
Manggarai area was later handed over as a wedding present and daughter Daeng Tamima established the Islamic Kingdom in Reo, north coast of Manggarai. Sultan Musa Lani Alima from Bima did not agree to make Manggarai as a gift to the Sultanate of Makassar. So in 1732 there was an alliance with Bajo to attack Reo from the sea and drive out the Makassarese in Reo. However, this attack failed to create a new force with the help of Todo from the south (Daeng 1995).

Todo used this opportunity to gain hegemony and influence over the interior of Manggarai by conquering local rulers.  Due to unequal power, Daughter Daeng Tamima finally surrendered and returned to Makassar. Thus the influence of Bima on Manggarai could still be maintained.
After securing power in Manggarai, Bima made Reo the center of government in Manggarai by appointing a representative of Sultan Bima called Naib. Representatives of the Sultan of Bima were also placed in Labuan Bajo, Pota and Bari. In Manggarai, the Sultanate of Bima spearheaded a system of government called kedaluan and gelarang. Gelarang had a status under the Daeng (Daeng 1995).

In 1732, there were representatives of the Sultan of Bima in Reo, Pota, Bari and Labuan Bajo, three large dalu; Todo, Cibal and Bajo who had no coordination relationship with Naib in Reo and also other small dalu. Furthermore, Dalu Todo also oversaw thirteen smaller dalu: Kolang, Lelak, Wontong, Welak, Ndoso, Ndeles, Rahong, Ruteng, Poco Leok, Torok Golo, Sita, Riwu and Manus, but still paid tribute to the Naib in Reo. Meanwhile, Dalu Cibal and Dalu Bajo did not oversaw other small dalu but also paid tribute to Naib in Reo (Daeng 1995).

Persons who had a coordinated relationship with Naib in Reo were Ruis, Pasat, Nggalak, Rego, Boyfriend, Boleng, Kempo, Nggorang, Mburak, Lo’ok and Lambaleda. Meanwhile, the depths that were in the coordinate line with Naib in Pota are Congkar, Biting and Rembong (Daeng 1995). In its development, the Manggarai area was divided into 38 genera (Steenbrink 2013).

In 1925, through a decree from the Netherlands, Manggarai became a kingdom and someone from the Todo-Pongkor people became the first king, King Bagung of Pongkor.
The Kingdom of Manggarai was made up of 38 dalu. Along with the appointment of King Bagung, the Netherlands also sent Kraeng Alexander Baruk to Manado.

Alexander Baruk was the son of Kraeng Tamur, king of Todo. In 1931/1932, Alexander Baruk came back from his school. He was appointed as king of Manggarai. However, since the king Bagung was still alive, there were two kings. King Bagung as “raja bicara” and the one who was responsible, was King Baruk.
The power of both ended when both died. King Bagung died 1947. Meanwhile, King Baruk died 1949. Later, both were replaced by Kraeng Langkas or Kraeng.

Kingdoms on Flores, 17/18th century


Source Manggarai (only indon. language)

Sejarah kekuasaan Manggarai Raya: http://www.floresa.co/2015/08/13/sejarah-kekuasaan-di-manggarai-raya-dari-perang-todo-vs-cibal-hingga-pilkada-langsung/
– Sejarah Manggarai: http://angelinhomenggot.blogspot.co.id/2014/04/kabupaten-manggarai-sejarah.html
Suku Manggarai: http://www.wisataflores.com/2015/03/orang-manggarai-bagian-pertama.html
– Tentang wilayah adat Flores, Dalu: http://suku-dunia.blogspot.co.id/2014/12/sejarah-suku-manggarai.html
Manggarai pernah miliki 6 raja: link
Sejarah Manggarai: http://kraengadhy.blogspot.co.id/2009/05/sekilas-sejarah-manggarai.html
– Keturunan Raja Manggarai hadir pengobatan sultan Bima: link.