Kingdom of Mataram / Isl. of Lombok – Prov. Nusa Tenggara Barat

The kingdom of Mataram was located on the island of Lombok. It existed until 1894.

Island of Lombok

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Location island of Lombok


* Foto intervention of the dutch on Lombok, 1894: link
* Foto Sasak tribe: link
* Foto old sites on Lombok: link


History of the kingdom of Mataram

The Balinese had managed to take over the whole island by 1750, but Balinese infighting resulted in the island being split into four feuding Balinese kingdoms. In 1838, the Mataram kingdom brought its rivals under control.

During one of the many Sasak peasant rebellions against the Balinese, Sasak chiefs sent envoys to the Dutch in Bali and invited them to rule Lombok. In June 1894, the governor general of the Dutch East Indies, Van der Wijck, signed a treaty with Sasak rebels in eastern Lombok. He sent a large army to Lombok and the Balinese raja capitulated to Dutch demands. The younger princes however overruled the raja and attacked and pushed back the Dutch. The Dutch counterattacked overrunning Mataram and the raja surrendered. The entire island was annexed to the Netherlands East Indies in 1895. The Dutch ruled over Lombok’s 500,000 people with a force of no more than 250 by cultivating the support of the Balinese and Sasak aristocracy.

The kingdom of Mataram as sole ruler on Lombok was successively ruled by three kings.
The first king was Anak Agung Ketut Karangasem IV (1838-1850), who consolidated Mataram as a single, centralized and repressive kingdom.
The second king was Anak Agung Made Karangasem (1850-1872), under this king was the renovation of Taman Kelepug and after it was named Taman Mayura. He also built Pura Meru, Tamaiq Suranadi, Lingsar, and the Taman Narmada which was completed in 1866. Then Cakranegara as the center of government.
The last king was Anak Agung Gede Ngurah Karangasem (1872-1894), who was crowned king at the age of 70 years.

1894: The Netherlands sent a military expedition and attacked Mataram from various directions. The attack in 1894 succeeded in destroying and burning the castle to nearly the ground. Mataram could then be conquered.


List of kings of Mataram

* 1838-1850: Raja Anak Agung Ketut Karangasem IV, who consolidated Mataram as a single, centralized and repressive kingdom.
* 1850-1872: Raja Anak Agung Made Karangasem, under this king was done the renovation of Taman Kelepug to become Taman Mayura. Also built Pura Meru, Tamaiq Suranadi, Lingsar, and the Narmada Park which was finished in 1866 M. Then Cakranegara as the center of government.
* 1872-1894: Last king: Anak Agung Gede Ngurah Karangasem.

Anak Agung Anglurah Gede Ngurah Karangasem, the last king of Mataram Lombok, was exiled to Batavia until his death in 1894. (Tropenmuseum).

mataram lombok


History of the kingdoms on Lombok

According to the contents of Babad Lombok, the oldest kingdom that once ruled on Lombok, was named kingdom of Laeq (in sasak laeq means past time), but another source namely Babad Suwung, declared that the oldest kingdom in Lombok was the Kingdom of Suwung, built and led by King Betara Indera. The kingdom of Suwung then was replaced by the kingdom of Lombok. In the 9th century until the 11th century existed the Sasak Kingdom which was later defeated by one of the kingdoms, who came from Bali at that time.

In Lombok, in its development, there are traces of the four main kingdoms, namely the Kingdom of Bayan in the west, Selaparang Kingdom in the East, Langko Kingdom in the middle, and Pejanggik Kingdom in the south. In addition to these four kingdoms, there were small kingdoms, such as Parwa and Sokong and several small villages, such as Pujut, Tempit, Kedaro, Batu Dendeng, Kuripan, Samarkaton and Kentawang. All these kingdoms and villages became independent territory after the Majapahit kingdom collapsed. Among the most prominent and most famous kingdoms and villages was the Lombok Kingdom based in Labuhan Lombok.

The Dutch had first visited Lombok in 1674 and the Dutch East India Company concluded its first treaty with the Sasak Princess of Lombok. The Balinese had managed to take over the whole island by 1750, but Balinese infighting resulted in the island being split into four feuding Balinese kingdoms. In 1838, the Mataram kingdom brought its rivals under control.

During one of the many Sasak peasant rebellions against the Balinese, Sasak chiefs sent envoys to the Dutch in Bali and invited them to rule Lombok. In June 1894, the governor general of the Dutch East Indies, Van der Wijck, signed a treaty with Sasak rebels in eastern Lombok. He sent a large army to Lombok and the Balinese raja capitulated to Dutch demands. (see Dutch intervention in Lombok) The younger princes however overruled the raja and attacked and pushed back the Dutch. The Dutch counterattacked overrunning Mataram and the raja surrendered. The entire island was annexed to the Netherlands East Indies in 1895. The Dutch ruled over Lombok’s 500,000 people with a force of no more than 250 by cultivating the support of the Balinese and Sasak aristocracy. The Dutch are remembered in Lombok as liberators from Balinese hegemony.

Lombok before the war of 1891

red = Balinese
blue = Sasak

1111 LOMBOK sebelum perang 1891 goed


Entrance of Islam on Lombok

Prior to the entry of Islam, the people who inhabit Lombok consecutively believed animism, dynamism and then Hinduism. Islam first entered through the “wali” of the island of Java, namely sunan Prapen in about the 16th century, after the collapse of the Majapahit kingdom.
In conveying the teachings of Islam, the wali’s did not necessarily eliminate the old habits of people, who still embraced the old faith. There was even acculturation between Islam and the culture of the local community, because the spreaders were using local customs to facilitate the delivery of Islam. The religious teachings of that day were rewritten in Old Javanese. Even the shahadah for the Wetu Telu followers was accompanied by a sentence in Old Javanese. In those days, those who were required to perform the worship. were the kiai.When the kingdom of Lombok was led by king Rangkesari, Prince Prapen, son of Sunan Ratu Giri, came to Islamize the kingdom of Lombok. In Babad Lombok is mentioned, this Islamic is an effort of Raden Paku or Sunan Ratu Giri from Gersik, Surabaya who ordered the kings of East Java and Palembang to spread Islam to various regions in the archipelago. The process of Islam by Sunan Prapen got a lively result, until several years later the whole island of Lombok embraced Islam, except for some places that still retain the old customs.


Source Mataram (only indon. language)

– Sejarah kerajaan Mataram Lombok: https://agusyulionopati.blogspot.co.id/2017/02/makalah-kerajaan-kerajaan-di.html
– Sejarah kerajaan Mataram Lombok: http://hubbulwatoni.blogspot.co.id/p/blog-page_13.html

Source old kingdoms on Lombok (only indon. language)

– Sejarah Kedatuan kuno Sasak: http://suparmanol.blogspot.co.id/2010/12/sejarah-kedatuan-sasak.html
– Sejarah Kedatuan kuno Sasak: http://gdefik.blogspot.co.id/2012/10/kedatuan-di-gumi-sasak-1.html
– Sejarah pulau Lombok di Wiki:  https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulau_Lombok#Sejarah

Source entrance Islam on Lombok (only indon. language)

– Masuk Islam di Lombok: http://fadlisworld.blogspot.co.id/2014/09/sejarah-masuknya-islam-di-lombok.html
– Masuk Islam di Lombok: http://situs9.blogspot.co.id/2014/08/masuk-dan-berkembangnya-agama-islam-di.html


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