The kingdom of Lawonda was founded c. 1880; the name was changed into Umbu Ratu Nggai.
Located on Sumba, in the district of Middle Sumba.
History of the kingdom
The kingdom of Lawonda was confirmed by “Korte Verklaring” on 28 September 1916.
At first the Lawonda Kingdom encompassed a rather small territory. In 1915, the region of Mbolubokat was released from the Mamboru kingdom and merged with the kingdom of Lawonda. Likewise with the territory of Lenang, Soru and Lakoka which originally were located within the kingdom of Napu combined with the kingdom of Lawonda. Furthermore, the territories of Wairasa and Parewatana were also released from the kingdom of Anakalang and combined with the kingdom of Lawonda. The territory of this kingdom became very extensive and renamed the kingdom Umbu Queen Nggay, following the name of an ancestor who is considered to represent the entire territory combined.
The first king of Umbu Ratu Nggay was Umbu Shiva Sambawali I, who previously served as king of Lawonda. He died in 1932 and was succeeded by his son, Umbu Mbili Nggemunasu. Because he was considered less capable, he was dismissed and replaced by his brother, Umbu Tipuk Marisi alias Umbu Siwa Sambawali II. In the same year Umbu Tipuk Marisi was inaugurated as the Regent of the Head of Region / Chairman of the Council of Kings of Sumba and Habil Hudang appointed representing him to run the daily government in Umbu Ratu Nggay. At the time of independence Umbu Tipuk Marisi was elected Head of Sumba Island Region.
List of kings
c.1880 Lawonda founded
…. Changed name into Umbu Ratu Nggai.
* c.1880 – 1913: Umbu Bili
* 1913 – 1932: Umbu Siwa Sambawali I
* 1932 – 1935: Umbu Mbili Nggemunasu
* 1935 – 1949: Umbu Sakala Maramba Jawa
* 1949 – 1962: Umbu Siwa Sambawali II
The kingdoms on Sumba
The people of Sumba generally have no kingdom in their traditional system of government. There are only villages led by a head of each village, customary rules that apply in each village. However, during Dutch colonial rule, to facilitate control, the Dutch began to establish relationships with village heads. They entered into a contract of cooperation, in which each traditional ruler who signed the contract (often called the Short Placard Contract or Korte Verklaring) was officially recognized and called the king and given stick as a sign of power. From here tokko (stick) became popular. There are two types of rods of gold-headed stick (tokko ndoko) given to the main king, and silver-headed stick (tokkoamaho kaka) for auxiliary king.
The king, who had the approval of the Dutch government had to recognize the sovereignty of the Dutch authorities and one of his important duties was to tax the Dutch interests. Thus their sovereignty has actually been under the control of other nations, but de facto the kings remain sovereign and highly respected by their people and through them the Dutch powers the entire community. At first there were the heads of the villages, who did not bow to and against the Dutch government, but because of the strong military strength they finally surrendered and submitted to the power of the Dutch.
– Source: http://jacktenabolo18.blogspot.co.id/2014/12/kerajaan-kerajaan-di-sumba-masyarakat.html
The kingdoms on Sumba are:
Kodi Bangedo: kingdom on south west Sumba
Kodi Bokol: kingdom on south west Sumba
Kodi: kingdom on south west Sumba
Laura: kingdom on south west Sumba
Waijewa: kingdom on south west Sumba
Lauli: kingdom on west Sumba
Wanokaka: kingdom on west Sumba
Gaura: kingdom on west Sumba
Laboya: kingdom on west Sumba
Anakalang, kingdom on central Sumba
Umbu Ratu Nggay: kingdom on central Sumba
Tapundung: kingdom on central Sumba
Mamboru: kingdom on central Sumba
Lawonda: kingdom on central Sumba
Lakoka: kingdom on central Sumba
Rende, Rendi: kingdom on east Sumba
Napu: kingdom on east Sumba
Menyili: kingdom on east Sumba
Melolo: kingdom on east Sumba
Karera: kingdom on east Sumba
Massu: kingdom on east Sumba
Massu Karera: kingdom on east Sumba
Lewa: kingdom on east Sumba
Waijelu: kingdom on east Sumba
Kambera: kingdom on east Sumba
Kanatang: kingdom on east Sumba
Kapunduk, kingdom on east Sumba
Pau, kingdom on east Sumba
Riung, kingdom on east Sumba
Umalulu, kingdom on east Sumba
Umbu Ratu Nggay on central Sumba
Source (only indon. language)
– Sejarah kerajaan Lawonda: http://umbugoda.blogspot.co.id/2014/01/kerajaan-lawonda-alexander-umbu-goda.html
– Kerajaan Lawonda dan daftar raja: http://jacktenabolo18.blogspot.co.id/2014/12/kerajaan-kerajaan-di-sumba-masyarakat.html
– Kerajaan kerajaan di Sumba: http://jacktenabolo18.blogspot.co.id/2014/12/kerajaan-kerajaan-di-sumba-masyarakat.html
– Sejarah kerajaan Sumba barat: https://www.facebook.com/notes/john-malahina/kerajaan-kerajaan-di-sumba-barat/10152624675666115
– Sejarah Sumba: http://www.moripanet.com/2013/09/mengenal-sejarah-sumba-ntt.html
– Sumba masa kolonial: http://www.umbugoda.blogspot.co.id/2014/01/masa-kolonial-pulau-sumba.html
– Tentang pulau Sumba: http://www.umbugoda.blogspot.co.id/search?updated-max=2014-02-13T20:11:00-08:00&max-results=50&reverse-paginate=true
– Suku Sumba: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suku_Sumba
– Suku Sumba: http://kebudayaanindonesia.net/kebudayaan/990/suku-sumba-nusa-tenggara-timur