Kingdom of Pasumayan Koto Batu / Prov. Sumatera Barat

The kingdom of Pasumayan Koto Batu is a kingdom of the Minangkabau People. Located in the prov. of West Sumatera, District Tanah Datar. Existed in the 1st century.
This kingdom had a central government in the area around the slopes of Mount Marapi (Regency of Agam), which became known as Pariangan Padang Panjang.
This kingdom existed in the 1st century.

District Tanah Datar


* Foto sultans and kings today on Sumatera: link
* Foto sultans and kings on Sumatera in the past: link

* Foto kingdoms in Simalungun area: link
* Foto small kingdoms in Aceh in the past: link

* Foto Minangkabau People: link
* Foto Batak People: link
* Foto old sites on Sumatera: link


History of the kingdom of Pasumayan Koto Batu 

The kingdom of Pasumayan Koto Batu was the first traditional kingdom in Minangkabau region. This kingdom had its administrative center in the region around the slopes of Mount Merapi, which became known as Pariangan and Padang Panjang.
In the first century AD, there had been a migration of people from the Indian subcontinent (South India) to the island Percha (Sumatra island) and was established a kingdom, called the kingdom Pasumayan Koto Batu, around the slopes of Mount Merapi. The king was titled Sri Maha- Dirajo, the queen was Puti Indo Jolito and their child was Sutan Maharajo Basa who later became known as Datuk Ketumanggungan. After the death of Sri Maha- Dirajo he replaced by Datuk Suri Dirajo, while the  wife of Sri Maha Dirajo remarried with Cati Bilang Pandai and gave birth to three children: Sutan Balun, Sutan Bakilap Alam, dan Puti Jamilan. Sutan Balun became known as Datuk Perpatih Nan Sebatang.
After the Kingdom of Pasumayan Koto Batu ended, Datuk Ketumanggungan and Datuk Perpatih Nan Sebatang, who had the same mother, founded new kingdoms. Datuk Ketumanggungan founded the kingdom of Bungo Setangkai in Sungai Taraband and prime minister was Datuk Bandaro Putiah. While Datuk Perpatih Nan Sebatang established the Kingdom of Dusun Tuo in Lima Kaum and Datuk Bandaro Kuniang became dipertuan. The kingdom of Pasumayan Koto Batu was not continued.

History of the kingdoms in the Minangkabau area

Google translation

The Pagaruyung Kingdom was founded by King Adityawarwan in 1343, which initially covered the former Bunga Setangkai kingdom and the former Dharmasyara kingdom.
Before the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Minangkabau, there were already other kingdoms that existed:

1) Kingdom of Pasumayan Koto Batu, see above.

2) Kingdom of Lagundi Nan Baselo, centered on the Padang Panjang pariangan, existed from the middle of the 2nd century AD to the middle of the 5th century AD.

3) Kingdom of Bungo Sitangkai. After the collapse of the Lagundi Nan Baselo kingdom, the Setangkai Kingdom emerged, which was centered on the Tarab river, which dates from the middle of the 5th century AD to the middle of the 14th century AD. It was led by a king who has the title Datuk Ketumanggungan.

4) Kingdom of Dusun Tuo. Along with the Setangkai Kingdom there was also the kingdom of Dusun Tuo , which was centered in Lima Kaum, which was led by a king who had the title Datuk Perpatih Nan Sabatang. This kingdom did not last long until the 5th century, when it was united with the Satangkai Kingdom. The king was then given the title of of Gajah Gadang Patah Gadiang.

5) Dharmasraya kingdom. Along with the establishment of the Setangkai Kingdom, the Dharmasraya kingdom was also established, whose kings also came from Pariangan Padang Panjang. One of the famous kings, Tri Buwana Raja Mauliwarmadewa, married Puti Lenggogeni from the Bunga Setangkai Sungai Tarab kingdom, and gave birth to 3 children, namely, Puti Paraweswari or better known as Puti Dara Jingga, mother of King Adityawarman, Puti Indraswari or better known as Puti. Dara Petak, the mother of King Jayanegara. Raja Parameswar which is also known as Akarendrawan which in tambo is better known as Tuanku Raja Muda.

6) The Kingdom of Bukit Batu PatahThe kingdom of Bukit Batu Patah was a kingdom that existed in Minangkabau before the founding of the Pagaruyung Kingdom and was a continuation of the Pasumayan Koto Baru Kingdom which was located in the present Tanah Datar district. The Bukit Batu Patah Kingdom was founded by Sutan Nun Alam, who still had family ties with Yang Dipertuan Bungo Kingdom Setangkai, Datuk Bandaro Putiah.

In black: the Minangkabau People


Kingdoms in Riau, 19th century


Source (only indon. language)


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