Principality of Mangkunegaran / Prov. Jawa Tengah – Surakarta

ꦦꦿꦗꦑꦣꦶꦦꦡꦺꦟ꧀ꦩꦁꦑꦸꦟꦼꦓꦫꦟ꧀

The principality of Mangkunegara was founded in 1757 and exists untill today.  Located in central Jawa, in the city of Surakarta (Solo).

Location of Surakarta


* Foto Principality of Mangkunegara: link
* Foto Keraton (palace) of Mangkunegara: link

* Foto sultans and kings, today on Jawa: link
* Foto keratons (palaces) on Jawa: link
* Foto Batavia (Jakarta) in the past: link

* Foto Jawa in the past: link
* Attack of Batavia by Sultan Agung, 1628/1628: link
* Foto Diponegoro – war, 1825: link

* Foto old sites on Jawa: link


About the Mangkunegara

Present Adipati (since 1987): Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya Mangku Negara, Mangku Negara IX.
Born in 1951, he is the current traditional ruler. He succeeded his father Mangku Negara VIII, as on 3 September 1987.

Mangkunegara IX, 2018


The emergence of the principality of Mangkunegara

After Sultan Agung I (ruled 1613 to 1645), the power and prestige of Sultanate of Mataram was declining due to a power struggle and conflict of succession within the royal family. The VOC (Dutch East India Company) exploited the power struggle to increase its control on Java, and manage to gain concessions of Mataram’s former colony in Priangan and Semarang. The Mataram seat in Plered near Kotagede collapsed after the Trunojoyo revolt in 1677.
Sunan Amral (Amangkurat II) relocated the palace to Kartasura. During the reign of Sunan Pakubuwono II, in 1742 Raden Mas Garendi (Sunan Kuning) led Chinese mercenaries and launched a revolt against the crown and also VOC. Raden Mas Garendi was the son of Prince Teposono and also the grandson of Amangkurat II. The rebels managed to take control of the Kartasura capital and ousted Pakubuwono II who fled and sought refuge in Ponorogo.
With the help of Adipati Cakraningrat IV the ruler of western Madura, Pakubuwono II regained the capital and cracked down on the rebellion. However the palace of Kartasura was destroyed and considered inauspicious since the bloodbath took place there.
Pakubuwono II decided to build a new palace and capital city in Sala (Solo) village. The transfer of the capital to Sala village is commemorated in chandrasengkala (chronogram) “Kombuling Pudya Kepyarsihing Nata” which corresponds to Wednesday 12 Sura 1670 Javanese year (17 February 1745).

Political turmoil was resolved during the Sunan Pakubuwana III era, after the Mataram Sultanate was divided into two. In 1755 on February 13, the Mataram region was divided into two, namely the Ngayogyakarta Sultanate and the Kasuhunan Surakarta Sultanate, the division of this area was stipulated in the Agreement of Giyanti (1755). Then in 1757 with Dutch intervention and based on the Salatiga agreement (1757), the Mataram sultanate was further divided into three parts, namely the Sultanate of Yogyakarta, Kasuhunan Surakarta and Mangkunegaran. And in 1813 the Sultanate of Yogyakarta was split again into two, namely the Sultanate of Yogyakarta and Pakualaman.

So, since 1813 there are 2 sultanates and 2 principalities on middle Java and they exist until now:
– Sultanate of Yogyakarta,
– Sultanate of Surakarta,
– princely state of Mangkunegaran,
– princely state of Paku Alaman.


About the principality of Mangkunegara

Mangkunegaran is a hereditary Duchy located within the region of Surakarta in Indonesia. It was established in 1757 by Raden Mas Said, when he submitted his army to Pakubuwono III in February, and swore allegiance to the rulers of Surakarta, Yogyakarta, and the Dutch East Indies Company, and was given an appanage of 4000 households. This was the result of the Salatiga Treaty of 1757.

Traditionally the ruler is called Mangkunegara. Raden Mas Said is Mangkunegara I. The ruler of Mangkunegaran domiciled at Pura Mangkunegaran, which is located in the city of Surakarta. The Mangkunegaran ruler, based on his formation agreement, is entitled to the title Adipati (formally called Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya Mangkunegara Senopati Ing Ayudha Sudibyaningprang) but has no right to hold the title Sunan or Sultan. Mangkunegaran is a Kadipaten, so its position is lower than Kasunanan and Kasultanan. This different status is reflected in several traditions that are still in effect today, such as the number of bedaya dancers who are seven, not nine as in the Surakarta Sunanate. However, different from the previous Kadipaten, Mangkunegaran had a very broad autonomy because it was entitled to have its own army independent from the Kasunanan.
After Indonesian independence, Mangkunegara VIII (the ruler at that time) declared that he joined the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia in September 1946.

The Palace of the rulers of Mangkunegaran was established by Raden Mas Said who signed a treaty with the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in 1757.

– Source: Wiki

Jawa, 1700 – Sultanate of Mataram

——————-
Java, 1757 – Java after the Agreement of Giyanti: Surakarta, Yogyakarta and Mangkunegaran

——————-
Java, 1830 – Surakarta, Yogyakarta, Mangkunegaran and Paku Alaman


List of Adipati

* 1757-1795: Mangkunegara I  (engl. link); Raden Mas Said

* 1975-1835: Mangkunegara II (engl. link); Raden Mas Sulomo, Grandchild of Mangkunegara I

* 1835-1853: Mangkunegara III; Raden Mas Sarengat, Grandchild of Mangkunegara II

* 1853-1881: Mangkunegara IV (engl. link); Raden Mas Sudira, Grandchild of Mangkunegara II

* 1881-1896: Mangkunegara V; Raden Mas Sunito, Brother of Mangkunegara IV

* 1896-1916: Mangkunegara VI (engl. link); Raden Mas Suyitno, Brother of Mangkunegara V

* 1916-1944: Mangkunegara VII; Raden Mas Soerjo Soeparto, Child of Mangkunegara V

* 1944-1987: Mangkunegara VIII (engl. link); Raden Mas Hamidjojo Saroso, Child of Mangkunegara VII

* 1987-……..: Mangkunegara IX (engl. link); Raden Mas Soedjiwo Koesoemo, Child of Mangkunegara VIII


About the palace

The Mangkunegaran Palace is the official palace of the Mangkunegaran Praja Kadipaten and the residence of its rulers (Sampéyan Ingkang Jumeneng). This building is in Surakarta. This palace was built in 1757 by Mangkunegara I following the palace model.
Architecturally, the building complex has parts that resemble a palace, such as having pamédan, pendapa, pringgitan, dalem, and keputrèn. The entire complex is surrounded by walls, only the pamédan part is given an iron fence.
The keraton was built after the Salatiga Agreement in 1757. Pangeran Sambernyawa, nicknamed for Raden Mas Said, was appointed “Pangeran Adipati “has the title Mangkunegara I.

Mangkunegaran Palace is the palace  of Sri Paduka Mangkunagara in Surakarta and was built after the year 1757  following the model of a smaller palace.

– Source Wiki: link
– About the palace: link


Graveyard of Astana Girilayu

Astana Girilayu is a burial complex for rulers (“Mangkunagara”) and close relative of Praja Mangkunegaran. In this complex is buried Mangkunagara IV, Mangkunagara V, Mangkunagara VII, and Mangkunagara VIII (last deceased ruler); each with its own mausoleum.

Sumber: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astana_Girilayu


Graveyard Astana Mangadeg

Astana Mangadeg is a burial complex for the early rulers (“Mangkunagara”) and close relative (dalem) of Praja Mangkunegaran. In this complex is buried Mangkunagara I (MN I), MN II, and MN III; each with its own mausoleum. In addition, within this complex is also buried a number of close relatives and the aides of the struggle in the battle against the Sultanate of Mataram and the VOC until it ends with the agreement of Salatiga Agreement (1758).


Source (english)

– Principality of Mangkunegara:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangkunegaran_Palace
About the palace: http://rauphzweblog.blogspot.co.id/2008/08/description-of-mangkunegaran.html
Treaty of Giyanti (1755): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Giyanti
List of kings: link


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