Kingdom of Pamekasan / Isl. of Madura

The kingdom of Pamekasan: 16th century – 1853. The kingdom was located on the island of Madura, district Pamekasan.

Location of Madura

Madura

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Location District Pamekasan


* Foto kingdom of Pamekasan: link

* Foto kings and rulers on Madura: link
* Foto of the Madura People: link


History of the kingdom of Pamekasan

It is estimated that the emergence of the history of local Pamekasan government has only been known since the mid-15th century based on historical sources about the birth of the myth or legend of Aryo Menak Sunoyo, who started local governance in the Proppo or Parupuk area. Long before the emergence of this legend, Pamekasan’s existence was not much talked about.It is estimated that Pamekasan was part of the Madura government in Sumenep which has been established since the appointment of Arya Wiraraja on October 13, 1268 by the king of Kertanegara.
Pamekasan Regency was born from a long historical process. The term Pamekasan itself was only known in the third of the 16th century, when Ronggo Sukowati began to move the center of government from Kraton Labangan Daja to Kraton Mandilaras. Yhere is not enough written evidence that states the process of moving the center of government, so that the name of this region has changed. Likewise, the emergence of government history in Pamekasan is very rare to find written evidence, let alone inscriptions explaining when and how it existed.
If the local Pamekasan government was born in the 15th century, it cannot be denied that this district was born in the dark age of Majapahit, when the coastal areas in the Majapahit territory began to pioneer the establishment of their own government.

In the 19th century the title Sultan was given by the Colonial Government to the King of Sumenep in 1825, King of Pamekasan in 1830, and King of Bangkalan was given in 1847 the title of Panembahan.

In 1858, Madura was reorganized into two residencies, East Madura with the Residency Capital in Pamekasan and West Madura with the Residency Capital in Bangkalan, with each Residency controlled by the Dutch. And in 1858 it decided to remove the Indigenous Kingdoms and the Pamekasan Kingdom to become part of the Residency from the colonial bureaucratic structure, and in 1883 the Kingdom of Sumenep was abolished, and the following was the Kingdom of Bangkalan in 1885.


About Ronggo Sukowati

Google translation

Panembahan Ronggosukowati became king in Pamekasan in the period 1530-1616 AD, at that time more and more people Pamekasan, who embraced the teachings of Islam.
Before Pamekasan was led by Panembahan Ronggosukuwati, the majority of Pamekasan people still adhered to Hindu-buddhism. At that time leadership in Pamekasan was still in the hands of the father Panembahan Ronggosukowati, namely Prince Bonorogo. Seeing the age that was not young anymore and was not able to lead the kingdom, finally Prince Bonorogo give up his power to Panembahan Ronggosukowati.

Before leading Pamekasan, Panembahan Ronggosukowati had studied Islam and became a santri from Sunan Giri. After his knowledge of Islam had been felt enough, he returned to Pamekasan. Since then Pamekasan for the first time led by a King of Islam. During his reign, Islam became increasingly known and already many people who embraced Islam. Islam also existed in Java long before the fifteenth century.


List of kings

Sultans

  • Adikara I (1685–1708) [son-in-law of Yudanegara of Sumanep]
  • Adikara II (1708–1737) [son]
  • Adikara III (1737–1743) [brother]
  • Panembahan Mangku Adiningrat (1804–1842) [son of Cakraningrat VII of Madura]
  • Pangeran Aria Suriokusumo (1842–1853) [grandson]
  • Pangeran Denyar Pradata Mangkunegaran XIV (2010-present) [grandson]

Sumber: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_monarchs_of_Java#Rulers_of_Pamekasan.5B34.5D


Palace

Mandiraras palace building is now the government center of the Kabupaten Pamekasan. Mandiraras palace is situated in the middle of town Pamekasan.
Mandiraras palace complex and several surrounding buildings were built in the days of Prince Ronggosukowati, who still had a relationship with the Majapahit kingdom. Although built during Majapahit period, until now most of the buildings are still intact.

Pamekasan keraton, now government.


History of the kingdoms on Madura

The history of Madura begins with Arya Wiraraja’s journey as the first Duke of Madura in the 13th century. In the Nagarakertagama book, especially in the 15th song, says that Madura Island was originally united with the land of Java, this shows that in the 1365s the Madurese and Javanese were part of the community. the same culture.

Around the year 900-1500, the island was under the influence of the Hindu kingdoms of East Java such as Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit. Between 1500 and 1624, Madurese rulers to some extent depended on Islamic kingdoms on the north coast of Java such as Demak, Gresik and Surabaya. In 1624, Madura was conquered by Mataram.

In 1624, Sultan Agung of Mataram conquered Madura and the island’s government was brought under the Cakraningrats, a single princely line. The Cakraningrat family opposed Central Javanese rule and often conquered large parts of Mataram.

Following the First Javanese War of Succession between Amangkurat III and his uncle, Pangeran Puger, the Dutch gained control of the eastern half of Madura in 1705. Dutch recognition of Puger was influenced by the lord of West Madura, Cakraningrat II who is thought to have supported Puger’s claims in the hope that a new war in central Java would provide the Madurese with a chance to interfere. However, while Amangkurat was arrested and exiled to Ceylon, Puger took the title of Pakubuwono I and signed a treaty with the Dutch that granted them East Madura.

The Cakraningrats agreed to help the Dutch quash the 1740 rebellion in Central Java after the Chinese massacre in 1740. In a 1743 treaty with the Dutch, Pakubuwono I ceded full sovereignty of Madura to the Dutch, which was contested by Cakraningrat IV. Cakraningrat fled to Banjarmasin, took refuge with the English, was robbed and betrayed by the sultan, and captured by the Dutch and exiled to the Cape of Good Hope.

In the 19th century the title Sultan was given by the Colonial Government to the King of Sumenep in 1825, King of Pamekasan in 1830, and King of Bangkalan was given in 1847 the title of Panembahan.

In 1858, Madura was reorganized into two residencies, East Madura with the Residency Capital in Pamekasan and West Madura with the Residency Capital in Bangkalan, with each Residency controlled by the Dutch. And in 1858 it decided to remove the Indigenous Kingdoms and the Pamekasan Kingdom to become part of the Residency from the colonial bureaucratic structure, and in 1883 the Kingdom of Sumenep was abolished, and the following was the Kingdom of Bangkalan in 1885.


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