Sultanate of Indrapura: 1347 – 1792. A kingdom of the Minangkabau People. Located in the District of Pesisir Selatan, Prov. West Sumatera.
District of Pesisir Selatan
About the Sultan / revival of the sultanate in 2012
Sultan the 35th (2020): Yang Dipertuan Inderapura Sultan Indera Rahim Syah Daulat Sultan Muhammad Syah.
The Sultan was installed on 1-12-2012.
More than a century the Sultanate of Inderapura seemed to be a name, no sultan or king was crowned to occupy the throne. This triumphant kingdom in Minangkabau had once dominated the area along the western coast of Sumatra in the past.
No less than 20 kings and sultans of the archipelago attended the coronation of Youdi Prayogo, SE, ME titled Sultan Indera Rahimsyah Daulat Sultan Muhammad Syah as the 35th Sultan.
History of the sultanate of Inderapura
The Sultanate of Indrapura is built on the ruins of the Old Kingdom of Inderapura, the kingdom of Teluk Air Pura which existed during the 9th century.
There are four episodes in the history of Inderapura:
* The kingdom of Air Pura, century IX – XII,
* Kingdom of Indrajati, XII century – XVI (1100-1500).
* Sultanate of Indrapura, XVI century – XIX (1500 – 1824)
* Era Regen, century XIX – XX (1824-1911).
Inderapura is also known as Ujung Pagaruyung. With the weakening of Pagaruyung’s power during the 15th century, several areas in the Minangkabau coastal areas, such as Inderagiri, Jambi, and Inderapura were left to take care of themselves.
However, Inderapura’s development really started when Malacca fell to the Portuguese in 1511. The trade flows that had been through the Malacca Strait mostly shifted to the west coast of Sumatra and the Sunda Strait. The development and expansion of Inderapura was mainly supported by pepper.
When exactly Inderapura achieved the status of an independent country is not known with certainty. However, it is estimated that this will coincide with the boom in pepper trade in the region. In the middle of the 16th century, pepper cultivation was encouraged in the southern border of Inderapura to reach Silebar (now in Bengkulu Province). During this time Inderapura established friendships with Banten and Aceh.
When the Aceh Sultanate expanded to the Pariaman area. Inderapura stopped this expansion by establishing friendship with Aceh through a marriage bond between Raja Dewi, daughter of Sultan Munawar Syah of Inderapura, and Sultan Firman Syah, brother of the king of Aceh at that time, Sultan Ali Ri’ayat Syah (1568-1575). Through this marriage relationship and its economic strength, Inderapura had a big influence in Kotaraja (Banda Aceh), even the warriors from Inderapura were said to have conspired to kill Sultan Ali Ri’ayat Syah’s son, thus paving the way for Raja Dewi’s husband to take the throne under the name Sultan Sri Alam in 1576. Although his rule lasted only three years before being removed from his throne due to conflicts with the ulama in Aceh.
However, Inderapura’s influence continued to persist in the Sultanate of Aceh, from 1586 to 1588.
Inderapura finally collapsed completely in 1792 when the VOC garrison at Air Haji invaded Inderapura because of an argument between its commander and the Sultan of Inderapura, then the Sultan of Inderapura fled to Bengkulu and died there (1824).
List of Kings
I Periode Inderapura, 1500 – 1824:
* Sultan Iskandar Johan Berdaulatsyah
* 1534-1556: Sultan Usmansyah Sultan Firmansyah
* 1560: Sultan Jamalul Alam YDD Sultan Sri Gegar Alamsyah Sultan Muhammadsyah
* 1600-1635: Sultan Zamzamsyah Sultan Muhammadsyah,
* 1635-1660: Sultan Khairullahsyah Sultan Muhammadsyah
* Sultan Bangun Sri Sultan Gandamsyah,
* Sri Sultan Daulat Pesisir Barat,
* 1640: Sultan Inayatsyah
* 1660-1687: Sultan Mazafarsyah
* Marah Amirullah Sultan Firmansyah.
* 1680: Sultan Muhammad Ali Akbar gelar Raja Adil
Marah Akhirullah Sultan Muhammadsyah (w.1838). After this, Inderapura was led twice by a Ratu:
Puti Rekna Candra Dewi.
Puti Rekna Alun (Tuanku Padusi Nan Gepuk),
* 1688-1707: Sultan Syahirullahsyah Sultan Firmansyah
* 1707-1737: Sultan Zamzamsyah Sultan Firmansyah Tuanku returning from Jawa having relationship with Kesultanan Jogyakarta
* 1774-1804: Sultan Indra Rahimsyah Sultan Muhammadsyah Tuanku returning from Jawa II
* 1804-1840: Sultan Inayatsyah Sultan Firmansyah
* 1818-1824: Sultan Muhammad Jayakarma
* Sultan Takdir Khalifatullah Inayatsyah.
II Periode Regen, 1824 – 1911 (dutch occupation):
- Abdul Muthalib Sultan Takdir Khalifatullahsyah (later became regent in Mukomuko, pensiun 1870).
- Regen Marah Yahya Ahmadsyah (1825-1857),
- Regen Marah Muhammad Arifin (1857-1858),
- Regen Marah Muhammad Baki Sultan Firman Syah (1858-1891),
- Regen Marah Muhammad Rusli Sultan Abdullah (1891 – 1911).
1 des. 2012: Installation of Youdhi Prayogo as Sultan of Inderapura the 35th.
In black: Sultan Inderapura, 2016
Government of the sultanate
The king is the supreme head of government, Mangku Raja is the king’s representative. Both run the highest government in the kingdom. Mangku Bumi is the Chairman of Lembanga Penghulu Staff is the Prime Minister and his cabinet The Twenty Heads are the staff of the Penghulu Institution which also supervises the Guiding Staff of the Penghulu which is divided into their respective duties.
Rangkayo and Datuk are members of the staff of the Penghulu Institute whose position is the same as the twenty-year-old penghulu.
The Assistant auxiliary staff is a Governmental Equipment Agency in charge of:
1. Directly take care of the child’s nephew
2. Giving accountability to each member of the Staff of the Institute of Prisons.
(Source: Tambo Alam Minang Kabau – Datuk Toeah, 1926).
Ruins of the old palace
The building of the Indrapura royal palace is now no longer there, because it was no longer fit for use. The remains of the buildings that still exist, are in the form of a cannon, foundation, and former stairs, and the kitchen. The remains of the palace foundations form a rectangular plan measuring 28 x 18 meters. The former entrance ladder is at the front of two (a pair).
* Foto ruins old palace of Inderapura: link
Source (only indon. language)
– Sejarah kerajaan Inderapura: http://pribadibudi.blogspot.co.id/2013/05/kerajaan-inderapura.html
– Sejarah kerajaan Inderapura di Wiki: Wiki
– Sejarah kerajaan Inderapura: https://wawasanislam.wordpress.com/2008/04/30/kesultanan-indrapura/
– Susunan pemerintahan kerajaan Inderapura: http://tasman1959.blogspot.co.id/2014/10/membongkar-adat-lamo-pusako-usang-70.html
– Daftar raja: http://kesultananinderapura.blogspot.co.id/
– Daftar raja: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daftar_Raja_Inderapura#Periode_Kesultanan_Inderapura_.281500_-_1824_M.29
– Kebangkitan kesultanan, pengobatan sultan baru (1-12-2012): Wiki
– Penobatan sultan baru: link