The kingdom of Kaimana is located in District Kaimana, prov. Papua Barat.
Prov. West Papua
District of Kaimana
About the king today (2018)
King today: Rat Umis Abdul Hakim Achmad Aituarauw dari Kaimana.
History of the kingdom of Kaimana
The Kaimana Kingdom was led by Rat Sran, which means the King of Sran or the Raja Komisi.
The word Rat, in Indonesian means King. Meanwhile, Sran is the name of the kingdom and its territory in Kaimana. Initially this kingdom was quite existing, but its influence gradually faded, even more and more forgotten. Research with historical methods reveals that the Sran Kingdom was founded in 1309. The first king was named Imaga, who had the title Rat Sran Nati Patimunin I. This kingdom moved three times, namely from Patimunin, Adi Island, and Kaimana City. The kingdom of Sran until 1440 had developed quite rapidly, but subsequently experienced a degradation of power due to the entry of Tidore, conflicts between the royal family, and changes in the system of government after the entry of the Dutch government.
Before the entry of the Dutch, the king’s power was absolute. However, when Tidore began to expand his power, the king’s power declined because he was in Tidore’s shadow. Especially after a civil war broke out between the royal family. For some time this kingdom was vacuumed because there was no king. The king who was appointed by Sultan Tidore did not survive.
In 1808, this kingdom rose again. It worked well for a while. However, in 1898 after New Guinea was declared the property of the Netherlands, there were various political changes which led to many changes in the administrative structure of the Kaimana kingdom, which resulted in the decline of the king’s power. The king ruled over the people, but not the king himself controlled the people but the king was under Dutch control and had to obey Dutch rules.
List of kings of Kaimana
Rulers (title Rat, from c.1898 Raja)
* …. – ….: Umis I Imaga
* …. – ….: Umis II Basir Onin
* …. – ….: Umis III Woran
* 18.. – 1898: Umis IV Nduvin
* 1898 – 1923: Umis V Naro’E
* 1923 – 1966: Umis VI Achmad Aituarauw
* 1966 – 1980: Umis VII Muh Achmad Rais Aituarauw (+1980)
* 1980 – …: Umis VIII Abdul Hakim Achmad Aituarauw
Kingdoms on West Papua
1) District Kaimana
2) District Fak Fak
3) District Raja Empat
King Rat Umis VIII Abdul Hakim Achmad
The history of the kingdoms of Prov. West Papua
According to Kakawin Nagarakretagama written between September-October 1365, Wwanin / Onin (Fakfak District) was an area of influence of Majala Majapahit Kingdom, this region may be part of the Hindu kingdom colonies in the Maluku Islands recognized by Majapahit conquest.
In his book “Neiuw Guinea”, WC. Klein also explained the early facts of the influence of the Bacan kingdom on Papua. There he writes: in 1569 Papuan leaders visited the kingdom of Bacan. According to the oral history of the Biak people, there was a relationship and marriage between their tribal chiefs and the sultans of Tidore. The Biak tribe was the largest Melanesian tribe that spreads on the northern coast of Papua, therefore the Biak language is also the most widely used and considered as the language of Papuan unity. Due to the relation of coastal areas of Papua to the Sultan-Sultan of Maluku there were several local kingdoms (pertuanan), which indicate the entry of feudalism system which is not the original culture of ethnic Papua.
In the Raja Ampat Islands located off the coast of Papua there are 4 traditional kingdoms belonging to the mandala territory of Bacan and the sultanate of Ternate, each of which was the kingdom of Waigeo, with its central power in Wewayai, Waigeo island; Salawati kingdom, with a power center in Samate, the island of Salawati Utara; the Sailolof empire with the center of power in Sailolof, South Salawati island, and the kingdom of Misol, with the center of power in Lilinta, Misol island.
In 1660, the VOC had signed an agreement with the Tidore sultan in which Tidore recognized the Dutch protectorate of the people of West Irian. This agreement clearly covered the inhabitants of the islands between Maluku and Irian. Obviously, Tidore never actually controlled Irian. So the Dutch protectorate is just a legal fiction.
Tidore considered himself the superior of Biak. At that time, Malay traders began to visit the island of Irian. It is precisely this view of Tidore which is the reason the Dutch consider the western part of the island is part of the Dutch East Indies.
Since the 16th century, in addition to the Raja Ampat Islands belonging to the Sultan of Bacan and the Sultan of Ternate, other areas of Papua are the coastal areas of Papua from the island of Biak (as well as the Biak distribution areas) until Mimika is part of the mandala territory of Tidore Sultanate, a a large empire adjacent to the territory of Papua.
In 1826 Pieter Merkus, the Dutch governor of Maluku, heard rumors that England began to enter the coast of Irian in the east of the Aru Islands. He decided the group to explore the beach until Dolak Island. Two years later, the Dutch built the Fort Du Bus, which is now the city of Lobo, with the ultimate goal of blocking other European powers landed in western Irian. Fort Du Bus was abandoned in 1836.
In 1872, Tidore recognized the authority of the Kingdom of the Netherlands upon him.
The Dutch returned to Irian in 1898. Irian was divided between the Netherlands, Germany (northern part of eastern Irian) and England (southern part of eastern Irian). The arc line 141 is recognized as the eastern boundary of western Irian. In 1898 – 1949, western Papua was known as Dutch New Guinea.