The kingdom of Woyla was located on Sumatera, prov. Aceh, District Aceh Barat.
During the sultanate of Aceh this kingdom was a vassal or subordinate to the sultan of Aceh and was led by the king who had the title of Uleebalang.
After the end of the Aceh War, in 1914, Beutong entered Onderafdeling Meulaboh, as “swapraja”.
History of the kingdom
Woyla was a kingdom that was formed during the kingdom of Aceh led by Ratu Safiatuddin. The kingdom of Woyla was led by the Rawa Dynasty with king Datok Nahudom Sakti, who returned from Padang West Sumatra. At first king Datok King Datok Nahudom Sakti and his people from Meulaboh entered Woyla through the mouth of Krueng (river) Woyla – at that time Krueng Woyla emptied into Krueng Arongan.
They cleared the land at the mouth of Krueng Woyla by cutting timber. Some pieces of wood felt into the river and were carried by the water. However, the next day all the pieces of wood falling into the river returned to their original place, due to the influence of the water that spins in the mouth of the river. This is where the name Woyla – Woy comes from the word Woe = back, La (lha) = flake – meaning the wood chips are back again to the original place.
In summary, the kingdom of Woyla was attacked by the king of Aceh for refusing to give tribute to the messengers sent by the king of Aceh and the Woyla Kingdom lost. The King of Aceh replaced all Woyla Royal Officials from the Rawa Dynasty with the Aceh Darussalam Dynasty.
The first king was Teuku Chik Bineh Blang – Grandmother of Ampon Woyla – with the centre of the kingdom in Seuradeuk. Then the royal center moved to Pasi Aceh led by Teuku Ampon Meurah and he was subsequently replaced by Teuku Ben Husen Syah (Ampon Woyla) to enter the Netherlands to Woyla around 1897.
After independence, Woyla formed his own government, under the name Samatiga (Three Districts, Tungkop, Woyla, Samatiga). The first Government Center in Blang Balee and the Head of Nanggroe (kingdom) was Keuchik Muhammad. He was replaced by Tgk. Nyak Teh and after two years he was replaced by the king Woyla’s son Aswed Teuku Raja Buket and the capital was moved to Kuala Bhee. In 1957 Teuku Raja Buket died and was replaced by Aswed Nyak Husen and forty years later replaced by Aswed Abdul Hamid.
Military leaders from Kuala Bhee with: left sitting: Raja Teuku Ben Mohamat Oesen Sjah from Wojla (1893-1940-ies) in 1915. R T Tandi of lower area, back left: Panglima Muda Raja; chief of mukim Bhee and right Raja Dato Sarong of upper area. Sumber foto: Donald Tick, Facebook.
About the small kingdoms under the sultanate of Aceh
The western part of the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam was opened and built in the 16th century on the initiative of Sultan Saidil Mukamil (Sultan of Aceh who lived between 1588-1604), followed by Sultan Iskandar Muda (Sultan of Aceh who lived in 1607-1636) the Acehnese Rayeuk and Pidie.
The first bustling area was at Meulaboh bay (Pasi Karam) ruled by a king who was titled Teuku Keujruen Meulaboh, and Negeri Daya (District Jaya) which at the end of the 15th century had established a kingdom with its king is Sultan Salatin Alaidin Riayat Shah with the title Poteu Meureuhom Daya.
The area of West Aceh at the end of the 17th century had developed into several small kingdoms led by a Uleebalang, namely: Kluang; Lamno; Kuala Lambeusoe; Kuala Daya; Kuala Unga; Babah Awe, and many more.
The structure of government of the small kingdoms
1) Gampong, the leader was called Geucik or Keuchik. The smallest territorial area of the government structure in Aceh was the Gampong. A Gampong consisted of groups of houses adjacent to each other.
The leader of the gampong was called Geucik or Keuchik, who was assisted by a proficient in religious matters, as Teungku Meunasah.
2) Mukim, the leader was called Imum Mukim. The larger territorial area of government was the Mukim. The Mukim was a combination of several gampongs, which were located nearby.
The leader of Mukim was called Imum Mukim. He was the one who coordinated the village (gampong) heads or Keuchik-Keuchik.
3) Sago or Sagoe, the leader was called Commander Sagoe or Panglima Sagi. In the Aceh region of Rayeuk (District Aceh Besar now), was a form of government called Sagoe or Sagi. The entire region of Aceh Rayeuk was incorporated into three Sagi, which can be regarded as three federations. The three Sagoe or Sagi were named:
1. Sagi XXII Mukim, consisted of 22 mukim.
2. Siva XXV Mukim, consisted of 25 mukim
3. Sagi XXVI Mukim, consisted of 26 Mukim
The leader was called Panglima Sagoe or Panglima Sagi, from generation to generation, they also hold the title of Uleebalang.
They were appointed as Panglima Sagi by the Sultan of Aceh, who gave them a stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh known as Cap Sikureung.
4) Nangroe, the leader was called Uleebalang. Another form of royal territory found in Aceh was called Nangroe or Negeri. This Nangroe was actually a conquered area of the Kingdom of Aceh and was located outside Aceh Inti or Aceh Rayeuk.
The leadership of Nangroe was called Uleebalang, which was established by tradition for generations.
The Uleebalang was the Head of State of the small kingdoms who were very powerful. However, when they assume the position of Uleebalang in their area, they had to be approved by the Sultan of Aceh. The Appointment Letter was called Sarakata and stamped with the stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh, Cap Sikureung.
5) The Sultan. The highest level in the government structure of the Kingdom of Aceh was the central government based in the royal capital, formerly known as Bandar Aceh Dar as Salam. The head of the central government was the Sultan who had the title of Tuanku.
Map of the small kingdoms in Aceh 1917
Source (only indon. language)
– Uleebalang di Aceh: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kesultanan_Aceh#Ul.C3.A8.C3.ABbalang_.26_Pembagian_Wilayah
– Uleebalang di kesultanan Aceh: https://www.kompasiana.com/ruslan./siapakah-uleebalang_552c324c6ea83444128b4580
– Sejarah Uleebalang: https://www.facebook.com/boy.adityamawardi/posts/771874096190147
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://febasfi.blogspot.co.id/2012/11/struktur-atau-lembaga-pemerintahan.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://helmiyymailcom.blogspot.co.id/2012/10/struktur-pemerintahaan-kerajaan-aceh.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://wartasejarah.blogspot.co.id/2013/07/kerajaan-aceh.html
– Tentang uleebalang: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ul%C3%A8%C3%ABbalang