The kingdom of Old Mataram or Medang: 752 – 1045. Located on central Java.
* Foto kingdom of (old) Mataram: link
History of the kingdom
The Medang or Mataram Kingdom was a Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom, that flourished between the 8th and 10th century. It was based in Central Java, and later in East Java. Established by King Sanjaya, the kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra dynasty.
The Mantyasih inscription of 907 (Dyah Balitung) states clearly, that the first king of the Kingdom of Medang (Rahyang ta rumuhun ri Medang ri Poh Pitu) was Rakai Mataram Sang Ratu Sanjaya.
Sanjaya itself issued Canggal inscription in 732, but does not mention clearly what the name of his kingdom.
During most of its history, the kingdom seems to rely heavily on agricultural pursuit, especially extensive rice farming, and later also benefited from the maritime trade. According to foreign sources and archaeological findings, the kingdom seems to be well populated and quite prosperous. The kingdom had developed a complex society, they had a well developed culture and had achieved a degree of sophistication and refined civilization.
In the period between the late 8th century to the mid 9th century, the kingdom saw the blossoming of classical Javanese art and architecture, testified by the rapid growth of temple construction dotted the landscape of its heartland in Mataram (Kedu and Kewu Plain). The most notable temples constructed in Medang Mataram are Kalasan, Sewu, Borobudur and Prambanan temples.
Beginning of the 11th (about 1006) century Srivijaya forces attacked and destroyed the Medang Palace, killing Dharmawangsa and most of the royal family.
List of kings
- Sanjaya, founder Kerajaan Medang
- Rakai PanangRakai Panangkaran, awal berkuasanya Wangsa Syailendra
- Rakai Panunggalan alias Dharanindra
- Rakai Warak alias Samaragrawira
- Rakai Garung alias Samaratungga
- Rakai Pikatan husband Pramodawardhani,
- Rakai Kayuwangi alias Dyah Lokapala
- Rakai Watuhumalang
- Rakai Watukura Dyah Balitung, Mpu Daksa
- Rakai Layang Dyah Tulodong
- Rakai Sumba Dyah Wawa
- 929-947: Mpu Sindok
- 947-9xx: Sri Lokapala husband of Sri Isanatunggawijaya
- 9xx-985: Makuthawangsawardhana
- 985-1006: Dharmawangsa Teguh, last king of Kerajaan Medang.
In the list above only Sanjaya wears the title of Sang Ratu, but the kings later all have the title of Sri Maharaja.
– Source: Wiki
Source (only indon. language)
– Sejarah kerajaan Mataram Kuno (Medang): https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerajaan_Medang
– Sejarah kerajaan Mataram Kuno: http://sejarahbudayanusantara.weebly.com/kerajaan-mataram-kuno.html
– Sejarah kerajaan Mataram Kuno: http://www.kopi-ireng.com/2015/03/kerajaan-mataram-kuno.html
– Sejarah kerajaan Mataram Kuno: http://www.zonasiswa.com/2014/05/sejarah-kerajaan-mataram-kuno.html
– Daftar raja: link
– Peninggalan kerajaan Mataram Kuno: http://kisahasalusul.blogspot.com/2015/12/15-peninggalan-kerajaan-mataram-kuno.html
– Peninggalan kerajaan Mataram Kuno: http://www.tandapagar.com/kerajaan-mataram/
Plaosan temple was built in the mid 9th century by Sri Kahulunnan or Pramodhawardhani, the daughter of Samaratungga, descendant of Sailendra Dynasty, and who was married to Rakai Pikatan in the Hindu tradition.The Plaosan complex currently comprises two Buddhist temples, Plaosan Lor and Plaosan Kidul.
The inscriptions and images of Plaosan Lor and Kalasan have raised questions about the origins of complex and the relationships between the images found and the religious complexity of the area when the structures were created.
– Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plaosan