The kingdom of Pedir (Pidie). Existed in the 15th century. Located in north east of the province of Aceh.
It remained a small kingdom under the sultanate of Aceh.
About the heir of Pedir
Second from right, sitting: heir of Pedir, name not known
History of Pedir
After the kingdom of Sama Indra succumbed to the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam, the next sultan of Aceh, Sultan Mahmud II Alaiddin Johan Sjah appointed king Husein Sjah as the young sultan in the autonomous Sama Indra country under the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam. The kingdom of Sama Indra was later renamed the kingdom of Pedir, which gradually transformed into the Pidie kingdom as it is known today.
Initially, the area of the kingdom of Aceh only covered Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar, led by the father of Ali Mughayat Shah. When Mughayat Shah came to the throne, he succeeded in strengthening the forces and uniting the Aceh region in his power, including conquering the Pasai kingdom.
At that time, around 1511, the small kingdoms of Aceh and the east coast of Sumatra such as Peurelak (in East Aceh), Pedir (in Pidie), Daya (Aceh Barat Daya) and Aru (in North Sumatra) were under Portuguese colonial influence.
Mughayat Shah was known to be very anti-Portuguese, therefore, to inhibit Portuguese influence, the small kingdoms were conquered and put into the territory of his kingdom.
Since then, the Acehnese kingdom is better known as Aceh Darussalam with a large area, resulting from the conquest of small kingdoms around it.
Mughayat Syah became the Sultan of Aceh. The kingdom of Aceh was under the influence of the kingdom of Pedir and some small kingdoms around Pedir to Gayo Land, subject under the kingdom Pedir, so it can be concluded that the kingdom of Pedir was a great kingdom.
The king of Pidie attacked the king of Aceh Besar in 1514 and Sultan Salahuddin Ibn Muzaffar Shah was descended from the throne. King Ali rose to king with the title of Sultan Ali Mughayat Shah, while his brother King Ibrahim became Admiral.
Ali Alaidin Mughayat Shah became the first founder and sultan of the Aceh Sultanate who reigned from 1514 until his death in 1530.
The Islamic Kingdom of Pidie ended around 1524, when Sultan Ali Mughayat Shah conquered this kingdom and made it a part of the Kingdom of Aceh.
It remained a small kingdom under the sultanate of Aceh.
List of kings
The Islamic Kingdom of Pidie was governed by ten Maharajas, five Penghulu, and two Tengku Keumangan. The Genealogy of kings / leaders of the Pidie Government at that time was as follows:
- maharaja sulaiman nur (son of sultan husen syah)
- maharaja syamsu syah
- maharaja malek ma’aruf syah (son of king sulaiman nur with the title syahir dauli, died 1511
- maharaja ahmad syah (syahir dauli) died in 1520
- maharaja husen syah, son of maharaja ma’aruf syah)
- maharaja sayidil mukammil, son of king firmansyah became sultan of aceh; he was the grandfather of sultan iskandar muda (ayah dari ibunya)
- maharaja husen syah son of king sayyidil mukammil
- maharaja orang kaya, meurah poli negeri keumangan
- maharaja keumangan porah (po meurah) syahir poli
- pang ulee peunoro, meurah po itam/bentara keumangan
- pang ulee peunaro, meurah po puan/bentara keumangan
- pang ulee peunaro, meurah po tahir/bentara keumangan
- pang ulee peunaro, meurah po seumar
- pang ulee peunaro, meurah po lateh
- teuku keumangan yusuf (after the war aceh – holland in 1877)
- teuku keumangan Umar, Ulee balang IX- mukim keumangan Pidie.
About the small kingdoms under the sultanate of Aceh
The western part of the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam was opened and built in the 16th century on the initiative of Sultan Saidil Mukamil (Sultan of Aceh who lived between 1588-1604), followed by Sultan Iskandar Muda (Sultan of Aceh who lived in 1607-1636) the Acehnese Rayeuk and Pidie.
The first bustling area was at Meulaboh bay (Pasi Karam) ruled by a king who was titled Teuku Keujruen Meulaboh, and Negeri Daya (District Jaya) which at the end of the 15th century had established a kingdom with its king is Sultan Salatin Alaidin Riayat Shah with the title Poteu Meureuhom Daya.
The area of West Aceh at the end of the 17th century had developed into several small kingdoms led by a Uleebalang, namely: Kluang; Lamno; Kuala Lambeusoe; Kuala Daya; Kuala Unga; Babah Awe, and many more.
The structure of government of the small kingdoms
1) Gampong, the leader was called Geucik or Keuchik. The smallest territorial area of the government structure in Aceh was the Gampong. A Gampong consisted of groups of houses adjacent to each other.
The leader of the gampong was called Geucik or Keuchik, who was assisted by a proficient in religious matters, as Teungku Meunasah.
2) Mukim, the leader was called Imum Mukim. The larger territorial area of government was the Mukim. The Mukim was a combination of several gampongs, which were located nearby.
The leader of Mukim was called Imum Mukim. He was the one who coordinated the village (gampong) heads or Keuchik-Keuchik.
3) Sago or Sagoe, the leader was called Commander Sagoe or Panglima Sagi. In the Aceh region of Rayeuk (District Aceh Besar now), was a form of government called Sagoe or Sagi. The entire region of Aceh Rayeuk was incorporated into three Sagi, which can be regarded as three federations. The three Sagoe or Sagi were named:
1. Sagi XXII Mukim, consisted of 22 mukim.
2. Siva XXV Mukim, consisted of 25 mukim
3. Sagi XXVI Mukim, consisted of 26 Mukim
The leader was called Panglima Sagoe or Panglima Sagi, from generation to generation, they also hold the title of Uleebalang.
They were appointed as Panglima Sagi by the Sultan of Aceh, who gave them a stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh known as Cap Sikureung.
4) Nangroe, the leader was called Uleebalang. Another form of royal territory found in Aceh was called Nangroe or Negeri. This Nangroe was actually a conquered area of the Kingdom of Aceh and was located outside Aceh Inti or Aceh Rayeuk.
The leadership of Nangroe was called Uleebalang, which was established by tradition for generations.
The Uleebalang was the Head of State of the small kingdoms who were very powerful. However, when they assume the position of Uleebalang in their area, they had to be approved by the Sultan of Aceh. The Appointment Letter was called Sarakata and stamped with the stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh, Cap Sikureung.
5) The Sultan. The highest level in the government structure of the Kingdom of Aceh was the central government based in the royal capital, formerly known as Bandar Aceh Dar as Salam. The head of the central government was the Sultan who had the title of Tuanku.
Map of the small kingdoms in Aceh 1917
Source Pedir (english)
– History of Pedir: https://journalsme.blogspot.co.id/2016/10/pedir-history.html
Source Pedir (only indon. language)
– Sejarah kerajaan Pedir: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerajaan_Pedir
– Sejarah kerajaan Pedir: http://evaluasiproyek.blogspot.co.id/2015/12/sejarah-kerajaan-pedir-pidie.html
– Sejarah kerajaan Pedir: http://pidiekab.go.id/kerajaan-poli-pedir-cikal-bakal-daerah-pidie/
– Daftar Raja: https://aponkkoponk.wordpress.com/2011/11/24/kerajaan-pedir-sekarang-di-kenal-dengan-pidie/
Source (only indon. language)
– Uleebalang di Aceh: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kesultanan_Aceh#Ul.C3.A8.C3.ABbalang_.26_Pembagian_Wilayah
– Uleebalang di kesultanan Aceh: https://www.kompasiana.com/ruslan./siapakah-uleebalang_552c324c6ea83444128b4580
– Sejarah Uleebalang: https://www.facebook.com/boy.adityamawardi/posts/771874096190147
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://febasfi.blogspot.co.id/2012/11/struktur-atau-lembaga-pemerintahan.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://helmiyymailcom.blogspot.co.id/2012/10/struktur-pemerintahaan-kerajaan-aceh.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://wartasejarah.blogspot.co.id/2013/07/kerajaan-aceh.html
– Tentang uleebalang: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ul%C3%A8%C3%ABbalang