The kingdom of Meureudu was located on Sumatera, Kab. Pidie Jaya, prov. Aceh.
During the sultanate of Aceh this kingdom was a vassal or subordinate to the sultan of Aceh and was led by the king who had the title of Uleebalang.
After the end of the Aceh War, in 1914, the small kingdoms entered a Onderafdeling as “swapraja”.
About the kingdom
Meureudu State had been founded and recognized since the time of the Kingdom of Aceh. When Sultan Iskandar Muda came to power (1607-1636) Meureudu was increasingly privileged. Become an area free of the rule of the kingdom. Only one obligation Meureudu had, providing logistical supplies (rice) for the needs of the kingdom of Aceh. Until the Kingdom of Aceh collapsed, Meureudu was still a free country.
The privileges of Meureudu continued until Sultan Iskandar Muda who was replaced by Sultan Iskandar Tsani. In 1640, Iskandar Tsani appointed Teuku Chik Meureudu as the definitive ruler of the kingdom. He was the eldest son of Meurah Ali Husein, who was named Meurah Johan Mahmud, which had the title of Teuku Pahlawan Raja Negeri Meureudu.
Since Meurah Johan Mahmud to the arrival of Dutch colonialism, Meureudu was ruled by nine Teuku Chik, and during the Dutch occupation, Landschap Meureudu had been ruled by three Teuku Chik (Zelfbeestuurders).
Then in the Dutch colonial era, the State of Meureudu converted into a Kewedanan (Orderafdeeling) which was governed by a Controlleur. During the Dutch colonial period, Kewedanan Meureudu had been ruled by fourteen Controlleurs, whose territory included from Ulee Glee to Panteraja.
During the Japanese occupation, the Meureudu community was led by Suntyo Meureudu Sun and A Guntyo Meureudu Gun.
After the colonial period, since 1967, Meureudu had been transformed into a Kawedanan Center as well as a subdistrict center. During Meureudu’s status as a kawedanan, has been ruled by seven Wedana people. In 1967, Kewedanan Meureudu was split into four sub-districts.
About the small kingdoms under the sultanate of Aceh
The western part of the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam was opened and built in the 16th century on the initiative of Sultan Saidil Mukamil (Sultan of Aceh who lived between 1588-1604), followed by Sultan Iskandar Muda (Sultan of Aceh who lived in 1607-1636) the Acehnese Rayeuk and Pidie.
The first bustling area was at Meulaboh bay (Pasi Karam) ruled by a king who was titled Teuku Keujruen Meulaboh, and Negeri Daya (District Jaya) which at the end of the 15th century had established a kingdom with its king is Sultan Salatin Alaidin Riayat Shah with the title Poteu Meureuhom Daya.
The area of West Aceh at the end of the 17th century had developed into several small kingdoms led by a Uleebalang, namely: Kluang; Lamno; Kuala Lambeusoe; Kuala Daya; Kuala Unga; Babah Awe, and many more.
The structure of government of the small kingdoms
1) Gampong, the leader was called Geucik or Keuchik. The smallest territorial area of the government structure in Aceh was the Gampong. A Gampong consisted of groups of houses adjacent to each other.
The leader of the gampong was called Geucik or Keuchik, who was assisted by a proficient in religious matters, as Teungku Meunasah.
2) Mukim, the leader was called Imum Mukim. The larger territorial area of government was the Mukim. The Mukim was a combination of several gampongs, which were located nearby.
The leader of Mukim was called Imum Mukim. He was the one who coordinated the village (gampong) heads or Keuchik-Keuchik.
3) Sago or Sagoe, the leader was called Commander Sagoe or Panglima Sagi. In the Aceh region of Rayeuk (District Aceh Besar now), was a form of government called Sagoe or Sagi. The entire region of Aceh Rayeuk was incorporated into three Sagi, which can be regarded as three federations. The three Sagoe or Sagi were named:
1. Sagi XXII Mukim, consisted of 22 mukim.
2. Siva XXV Mukim, consisted of 25 mukim
3. Sagi XXVI Mukim, consisted of 26 Mukim
The leader was called Panglima Sagoe or Panglima Sagi, from generation to generation, they also hold the title of Uleebalang.
They were appointed as Panglima Sagi by the Sultan of Aceh, who gave them a stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh known as Cap Sikureung.
4) Nangroe, the leader was called Uleebalang. Another form of royal territory found in Aceh was called Nangroe or Negeri. This Nangroe was actually a conquered area of the Kingdom of Aceh and was located outside Aceh Inti or Aceh Rayeuk.
The leadership of Nangroe was called Uleebalang, which was established by tradition for generations.
The Uleebalang was the Head of State of the small kingdoms who were very powerful. However, when they assume the position of Uleebalang in their area, they had to be approved by the Sultan of Aceh. The Appointment Letter was called Sarakata and stamped with the stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh, Cap Sikureung.
5) The Sultan. The highest level in the government structure of the Kingdom of Aceh was the central government based in the royal capital, formerly known as Bandar Aceh Dar as Salam. The head of the central government was the Sultan who had the title of Tuanku.
Map of the small kingdoms in Aceh 1917
Source Meureudu (only indon. language)
– Sejarah Meureudu: http://hack87.blogspot.co.id/2012/05/sejarah-kerajaan-poli-cikal-bakal.html
– Sejarah Meureudu: http://www.mukhlisuddin.com/2012/02/mereudue-kota-penuh-sejarah.html
– Sejarah Meureudu: http://www.pidiejayakab.go.id/profil-daerah/sejarah.html
– Sejarah Meureudu (Wiki): https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabupaten_Pidie_Jaya#Sejarah
Source (only indon. language)
– Uleebalang di Aceh: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kesultanan_Aceh#Ul.C3.A8.C3.ABbalang_.26_Pembagian_Wilayah
– Uleebalang di kesultanan Aceh: https://www.kompasiana.com/ruslan./siapakah-uleebalang_552c324c6ea83444128b4580
– Sejarah Uleebalang: https://www.facebook.com/boy.adityamawardi/posts/771874096190147
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://febasfi.blogspot.co.id/2012/11/struktur-atau-lembaga-pemerintahan.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://helmiyymailcom.blogspot.co.id/2012/10/struktur-pemerintahaan-kerajaan-aceh.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://wartasejarah.blogspot.co.id/2013/07/kerajaan-aceh.html
– Tentang uleebalang: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ul%C3%A8%C3%ABbalang