Kingdom of Sakra / Isl. of Lombok – Prov. Nusa Tenggara Barat

The kingdom (Kedatuan) of Sakra was located on the island of Lombok. 1780 – 1828.

Island of Lombok

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Location island of Lombok


* Foto intervention of the dutch on Lombok, 1894: link
* Foto Sasak tribe: link
* Foto old sites on Lombok: link


History of the kingdom of Sakra

Sakra Kingdom existed only 50 years, starting from 1780 until 1828. After his defeat, the Sakra establish and maintain good relations with the kingdom of Karangasem.
The Puputan Sabil war was between the kingdom Pejanggik and Karangasem. Pemban Mas Meraja Kusuma got a moral punishment, he was not allowed to join puputan by his father, Pemban Mas Komala Kusuma. But he prepared his next generation, Purwada Purwada as crown prince in the XI generation. He was crowned king in exile accompanied by his sister, Deneq Laki Mas Orpa, and brother of concubine, Rade Nune Ratmaja Tember.
After Purwadadi’s kingdom as the last stronghold of Pejanggik was destroyed by Karangasem and Banjar Getas, the soldiers fled to the surrounding forests, partly went to Sumbawa. Feeling well established, Karangasem was suspicious of the development of the Getas Banjar.
Messengers were sent to invite Purwadadi to return to Lombok on condition that he established good relationship with Karangasem and if one day he was willing to join Banjar Getas. In the beginning Purwadadi rejected the plan. However, knowing from the start of the rivalry between Banjar Getas and Karangasem, he secretly sent his accomplices, including his stepmother, with the young Raden Nuna Ratmaja Tember as a symbol and a temporary representative.
They took place at the Tanaq Conspirator Crater, across the river north of Purwadadi. This place is regarded as the forerunner to the establishment of a new kingdom which was around 1870 AD was named Sakra.
Sakra Kingdom existed only 50 years.


History of the kingdoms on Lombok

According to the contents of Babad Lombok, the oldest kingdom that once ruled on Lombok, was named kingdom of Laeq (in sasak laeq means past time), but another source namely Babad Suwung, declared that the oldest kingdom in Lombok was the Kingdom of Suwung, built and led by King Betara Indera. The kingdom of Suwung then was replaced by the kingdom of Lombok. In the 9th century until the 11th century existed the Sasak Kingdom which was later defeated by one of the kingdoms, who came from Bali at that time.

In Lombok, in its development, there are traces of the four main kingdoms, namely the Kingdom of Bayan in the west, Selaparang Kingdom in the East, Langko Kingdom in the middle, and Pejanggik Kingdom in the south. In addition to these four kingdoms, there were small kingdoms, such as Parwa and Sokong and several small villages, such as Pujut, Tempit, Kedaro, Batu Dendeng, Kuripan, Samarkaton and Kentawang. All these kingdoms and villages became independent territory after the Majapahit kingdom collapsed. Among the most prominent and most famous kingdoms and villages was the Lombok Kingdom based in Labuhan Lombok.

The Dutch had first visited Lombok in 1674 and the Dutch East India Company concluded its first treaty with the Sasak Princess of Lombok. The Balinese had managed to take over the whole island by 1750, but Balinese infighting resulted in the island being split into four feuding Balinese kingdoms. In 1838, the Mataram kingdom brought its rivals under control.

During one of the many Sasak peasant rebellions against the Balinese, Sasak chiefs sent envoys to the Dutch in Bali and invited them to rule Lombok. In June 1894, the governor general of the Dutch East Indies, Van der Wijck, signed a treaty with Sasak rebels in eastern Lombok. He sent a large army to Lombok and the Balinese raja capitulated to Dutch demands. (see Dutch intervention in Lombok) The younger princes however overruled the raja and attacked and pushed back the Dutch. The Dutch counterattacked overrunning Mataram and the raja surrendered. The entire island was annexed to the Netherlands East Indies in 1895. The Dutch ruled over Lombok’s 500,000 people with a force of no more than 250 by cultivating the support of the Balinese and Sasak aristocracy. The Dutch are remembered in Lombok as liberators from Balinese hegemony.


Wetu Telu

Wetu Telu (Indonesian: Waktu Tiga) is the unique practice of some Sasak people in practicing Islam, which only practices the three pillars of Islam, namely reading the two sentences of the creed, praying and fasting. The three pillars of Islam are sufficiently carried out by the kyai as the religious leader who connects them with Allah. They also believe in the existence of holy spirits of their ancestors and supernatural powers on objects.


Entrance of Islam on Lombok

Prior to the entry of Islam, the people who inhabit Lombok consecutively believed animism, dynamism and then Hinduism. Islam first entered through the “wali” of the island of Java, namely sunan Prapen in about the 16th century, after the collapse of the Majapahit kingdom.
In conveying the teachings of Islam, the wali’s did not necessarily eliminate the old habits of people, who still embraced the old faith. There was even acculturation between Islam and the culture of the local community, because the spreaders were using local customs to facilitate the delivery of Islam. The religious teachings of that day were rewritten in Old Javanese. Even the shahadah for the Wetu Telu followers was accompanied by a sentence in Old Javanese. In those days, those who were required to perform the worship. were the kiai.When the kingdom of Lombok was led by king Rangkesari, Prince Prapen, son of Sunan Ratu Giri, came to Islamize the kingdom of Lombok. In Babad Lombok is mentioned, this Islamic is an effort of Raden Paku or Sunan Ratu Giri from Gersik, Surabaya who ordered the kings of East Java and Palembang to spread Islam to various regions in the archipelago. The process of Islam by Sunan Prapen got a lively result, until several years later the whole island of Lombok embraced Islam, except for some places that still retain the old customs.


Source Kedatuan Sakra (only indon. language)

– Runtuhnya Sakra: http://niwayanmariaseh.blogspot.co.id/2014/10/runtuhnya-sakra.html
– Sejarah kedatuan Sakra: http://gdefik.blogspot.co.id/2012/10/kedatuan-di-gumi-sasak-1.html
– Sejarah kedatuan Sakra: https://www.facebook.com/notes/mantra-ardhana/kerajaan-sakra/10152031758669269/
– Sejarah kedatuan Sakra: https://agusyulionopati.blogspot.co.id/2017/02/makalah-kerajaan-kerajaan-di.html

Source old kingdoms on Lombok (only indon. language)

– Sejarah Kedatuan kuno Sasak: http://suparmanol.blogspot.co.id/2010/12/sejarah-kedatuan-sasak.html
– Sejarah Kedatuan kuno Sasak: http://gdefik.blogspot.co.id/2012/10/kedatuan-di-gumi-sasak-1.html
– Sejarah pulau Lombok di Wiki:  https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulau_Lombok#Sejarah

Source entering Islam on Lombok (only indon. language)

– Masuk Islam di Lombok: http://fadlisworld.blogspot.co.id/2014/09/sejarah-masuknya-islam-di-lombok.html
– Masuk Islam di Lombok: http://situs9.blogspot.co.id/2014/08/masuk-dan-berkembangnya-agama-islam-di.html


 

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