The Kingdom of Pagaruyung Darul Qarar: 1346 – 1833. Pagaruyung was the seat of the Minangkabau kings of Western Sumatra. Modern Pagaruyung is a village in Tanjung Emas subdistrict, Tanah Datar regency; prov. of West Sumatera.
About the last king
About the king today (2017)
Today there are 2 rival kings:
1) Sutan Haji Muhammad Taufiq Thaib Tuanku Mudo Mahkota Alam
This Sultan died 1 febr. 2018.
On 29 sept. 2018 the new sultan was installed: Sultan M Farid Thaib Tuanku Abdul Fattah.
2) Muchdan Taher Bakrie Sultan Alam Bagagarsyah Daulat Yang Dipertuan Raja Alam Pagaruyung.
History of the kingdom of Pagaruyung
Pagaruyung (also Pagaruyung, Pagar Ruyung and, Malayapura or Malayupura) was the seat of the Minangkabau kings of Western Sumatra, though little is known about it. Modern Pagaruyung is a village in Tanjung Emas subdistrict, Tanah Datar regency, located near the town of Batusangkar, Indonesia.
1 Kingdom of Pasumayan Koto Batu,
2 Kingdom of Pariangan Padang Panjang
3 Kingdom of Dusun Tuo founded by Datuk Perpatih Nan Sabatang
4 Kingdom of Bungo Sitangkai
5 Kingdom of Bukit Batu Patah and last
6 Kingdom of Pagaruyung.
Adityawarman is believed to have founded the kingdom and presided over the central Sumatra region between 1347 and 1375, most likely to control the local gold trade. The few artifacts recovered from Adityawarman’s reign include a number of stones containing inscriptions, and statues. Some of these items were found at Bukit Gombak, a hill near modern Pagarruyung, and it is believed a royal palace was located there.
By the 16th century, the time of the next report after the reign of Adityawarman, royal power had been split into three recognized reigning kings. They were the King of the World (Raja Alam), the King of Adat (Raja Adat), and the King of Religion (Raja Ibadat). Collectively they were called the Kings of the Three Seats (Rajo Tigo Selo).
The first European to enter the region was Thomas Dias, a Portuguese employed by the Dutch governor of Malacca He travelled from the east coast to reach the region in 1684 and reported, probably from hearsay, that there was a palace at Pagaruyung and that visitors had to go through three gates to enter it. The primary local occupations at the time were gold panning and agriculture, he reported.
On May 2, 1833, Sultan Tunggal Alam Bagagar was captured by Colonel Elout (Dutch army) troops in Batusangkar on charges of treason. He was then exiled to Batavia (Jakarta now). He died in Batavia on 12 February 1849.
Padri War, 1803 – 1838
A civil war started in 1803 with the Padri fundamentalist Islamic group in conflict with the traditional syncretic groups, elite families and Pagarruyung royals. The original Pagaruyung Palace on Batu Patah Hill was burned down during a riot in Padri War back in 1804. During the conflict most of the Minangkabau royal family were killed in 1815, on the orders of Tuanku Lintau.
The British controlled the west coast of Sumatra between 1795 and 1819. Stamford Raffles visited Pagarruyung in 1818, reaching it from the west coast, and by then it had been burned to the ground three times. It was rebuilt after the first two fires, but abandoned after the third, and Raffles found little more than waringin trees.
The Dutch returned to Padang in May 1819. As a result of a treaty with a number of penghulu and representatives of the murdered Minangkabau royal family, Dutch forces made their first attack on a Padri village in April 1821.
The prestige of Pagaruyung remained high among the Minangkabau communities in the rantau, and when the members of the court were scattered following a failed rebellion against the Dutch in 1833, one of the princes was invited to become ruler in Kuantan.
– For more see:Wiki
About Rajo Tigo Selo
Rajo Tigo Selo is a supreme institution in the kingdom of Pagaruyung, which was called in Tambo Adat, Limbago Rajo.
Three Kings, Raja Alam, Raja Adat and Raja Ibadat had a common ancestor. Raja Alam, Raja Adat, dan Raja Ibadat, these 3 kings were called Rajo Tigo Selo. While Raja Adat and Raja Ibadat were called Rajo Duo Selo. The kings of Tigo Selo always tried to maintain a very close kinship by the way of intermarry.
Each king had his own duties, authority and regional position.
* Raja Alam had his seat in Pagaruyung.
* Raja Adat had his seat in Buo,
* Raja Ibadat had his seat in Sumpur Kudus.
List of kings
I Maharajadiraja, 1347 – 1417
II Yang Dipertuan Pagaruyung, 1668 – 1883
The first Islam dynasty; they used the title Sultan.
* 1668-1674: Ahmadsyah. Tidak diketahui, muncul berdasarkan dari korespondensi surat-menyurat antara seorang regent VOC di Padang Jacob Pits dengan raja Minangkabau, salah satunya surat tertanggal 9 Oktober 1668. Sultan Ahmadsyah, Iskandar Zur-Karnain, penguasa Minangkabau yang kaya akan emas
* 1674-1730: Indermasyah, Son of Ahmadsyah, is known based on the letter received by the VOC regent in Padang and the Dutch governor in Melaka, beginning in 1670. Raja Suruaso, Yang Dipertuan Inderma
* 1780-1821: Muningsyah,Tidak not sure. Sultan Arifin Muningsyah, Yang Dipertuan Pagaruyung Raja Alam Muningsya
* 1821-1833: The last Sultan of Pagaruyung. On May 2, 1833, Sultan Tunggal Alam Bagagar was captured by Dutch troops and exiled to Batavia (Jakarta now) until his death (1849).
– Sumber / Source: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daftar_Raja_Pagaruyung
2017: Today there are 2 rival kings:
* Muchdan Taher Bakrie Sultan Alam Bagagarsyah Daulat Yang Dipertuan Raja Alam Pagaruyung,
* Sutan Haji Muhammad Taufiq Thaib Tuanku Mudo Mahkota Alam.
There are 2 palaces.
1) Istana Silinduang Bulan
Istano Silinduang Moon was rebuilt in 1750, as the old building was old and began to crumble. In 1821, this palace burned down during the Padri War. In 1869, Istono Silinduang Bulan was built again by Yang Dipertuan Gadih Puti Reno Sumpu, the nephew of Sultan Tangkal Syariful Alam Bagagar Syah Yang Dipertuan Hitam, and the daughter of Yang Dipertuan Gadih Reno Sori with Sultan Abdul Jalil Yang Dipertuan Sembahyang (holder of Raja Adat, King of Worship, and King of Nature). On August 3, 1961 Istano Silinduang Moon burned again.
The existing palace was re-established on the burning Palace site in 1961.
* Foto istana Silinduang Bulan:link
2) Istano Basa
Pagaruyung Palace is the istana (royal palace) of the former Pagaruyung Kingdom, located in Tanjung Emas subdistrict near Batusangkar town, Tanah Datar Regency, West Sumatra, Indonesia. It was built in the traditional MinangkabauRumah Gadang vernacular architectural style, but had a number of atypical elements including three stories structure and larger dimension compares to common rumah gadang.
Although today there is no king or royal family resides in this palace, since the Pagaruyung Kingdom was disbanded in 1833, the palace still held in high esteem among Minangkabau people as the descendants of scattered Minang nobles (bangsawan) still seeks their root and link to the former royal house of Pagaruyung. The palace has been destroyed by fire for several times, in 1804, 1966 and 2007. It has been rebuilt again and today function as museum and popular tourist attraction.
* Foto istana Istano Basa:link