Sultanate of Pagaruyung / Prov. Sumatera Barat – Kab. Tanah Datar

The Kingdom of Pagaruyung Darul Qarar: 1346 – 1833. Pagaruyung was the seat of the Minangkabau kings of Western Sumatra. Modern Pagaruyung is a village in Tanjung Emas subdistrict, District Tanah Datar; prov. of West Sumatera.

District Tanah Datar

kab. Tanah Datar


* Foto kingdom of Pagaruyung: link
* Foto palace Silinduang Bulan: link
* Foto palace Istano Basa: link

* Foto sultans and kings today on Sumatera: link
* Foto sultans and kings on Sumatera in the past: link

* Foto kingdoms in Simalungun area: link
* Foto small kingdoms in Aceh in the past: link
* Foto Minangkabau People: link
* Foto Batak People: link
* Foto old sites on Sumatera: link


About the king today (2020)

29 September 2018
Sutan Muhammad Faris Thaib Tuanku Abdul Fatah ascended to the throne on September 29 2018, after the death of Sutan Taufiq Thaib febr. 2018.

February 1, 2018
Sutan Mohammad Taufiq Thaib Yang Dipertuan Tuanku Mudo Mahkota Alam passed away on the 1st of February. 2018.

2002
Sutan Mohammad Taufiq Thaib who was entrusted by Tuanku Mudo Mahkota Alam to become Sultan Pagaruyung.

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Sutan Mohammad Taufiq Thaib Yang Dipertuan Tuanku Mudo Mahkota Alam passed away on the 1st of February. 2018


History of the sultanate of Pagaruyung

Adityawarman is believed to have founded the kingdom and presided over the central Sumatra region between 1347 and 1375, most likely to control the local gold trade. The few artefacts recovered from Adityawarman’s reign include a number of stones containing inscriptions, and statues. Some of these items were found at Bukit Gombak, a hill near modern Pagarruyung, and it is believed a royal palace was located there.

There is a major gap in the historical picture in the Minangkabau highlands between the last date of Adityawarman’s inscription in 1375 and Tomé Pires Suma Oriental, written some time between 1513 and 1515.

By the 16th century, the time of the next report after the reign of Adityawarman, royal power had been split into three recognised reigning kings. They were the King of the World (Raja Alam), the King of Adat (Raja Adat), and the King of Religion (Raja Ibadat). Collectively they were called the Kings of the Three Seats (Rajo Tigo Selo).

The first European to enter the region was Thomas Dias, a Portuguese employed by the Dutch governor of Malacca. He travelled from the east coast to reach the region in 1684 and reported, probably from hearsay, that there was a palace at Pagaruyung and that visitors had to go through three gates to enter it. The primary local occupations at the time were gold panning and agriculture, he reported.

A civil war started in 1803 with the Padri fundamentalist Islamic group in conflict with the traditional syncretic groups, elite families and Pagarruyung royals. The original Pagaruyung Palace on Batu Patah Hill was burned down during a riot in Padri War back in 1804. During the conflict most of the Minangkabau royal family were killed in 1815, on the orders of Tuanku Lintau.

The British controlled the west coast of Sumatra between 1795 and 1819. Stamford Raffles visited Pagarruyung in 1818, reaching it from the west coast, and by then it had been burned to the ground three times. It was rebuilt after the first two fires, but abandoned after the third, and Raffles found little more than waringin trees.

The Dutch returned to Padang in May 1819. As a result of a treaty with a number of penghulu and representatives of the murdered Minangkabau royal family, Dutch forces made their first attack on a Padri village in April 1821.

The prestige of Pagaruyung remained high among the Minangkabau communities in the rantau, and when the members of the court were scattered following a failed rebellion against the Dutch in 1833, one of the princes was invited to become ruler in Kuantan.

Adityawarman


Padri War,  1803 – 1838

A civil war started in 1803 with the Padri fundamentalist Islamic group in conflict with the traditional syncretic groups, elite families and Pagarruyung royals. The original Pagaruyung Palace on Batu Patah Hill was burned down during a riot in Padri War back in 1804. During the conflict most of the Minangkabau royal family were killed in 1815, on the orders of Tuanku Lintau.

The British controlled the west coast of Sumatra between 1795 and 1819. Stamford Raffles visited Pagarruyung in 1818, reaching it from the west coast, and by then it had been burned to the ground three times. It was rebuilt after the first two fires, but abandoned after the third, and Raffles found little more than waringin trees.

The Dutch returned to Padang in May 1819. As a result of a treaty with a number of penghulu and representatives of the murdered Minangkabau royal family, Dutch forces made their first attack on a Padri village in April 1821.

The prestige of Pagaruyung remained high among the Minangkabau communities in the rantau, and when the members of the court were scattered following a failed rebellion against the Dutch in 1833, one of the princes was invited to become ruler in Kuantan.

– For more see:Wiki


About Rajo Tigo Selo

Rajo Tigo Selo is a supreme institution in the kingdom of Pagaruyung, which was called in Tambo Adat, Limbago Rajo.
Three Kings, Raja Alam, Raja Adat and Raja Ibadat had a common ancestor. Raja Alam, Raja Adat, dan Raja Ibadat, these 3 kings were called Rajo Tigo Selo. While Raja Adat and Raja Ibadat were called Rajo Duo Selo. The kings of Tigo Selo always tried to maintain a very close kinship by the way of intermarry.
Each king had his own duties, authority and regional position.
* Raja Alam had his seat in Pagaruyung.
* Raja Adat had his seat in Buo,
* Raja Ibadat had his seat in Sumpur Kudus.


List of kings

I Maharajadiraja, 1347 – 1417

* 1347-1375: Adityawarman
* 1375-1417: Anangawarman

II Yang Dipertuan Pagaruyung, 1668 – 1883
The first Islam dynasty; they used the title Sultan.

* 1668-1674: Ahmadsyah. Tidak diketahui, muncul berdasarkan dari korespondensi surat-menyurat antara seorang regent VOC di Padang Jacob Pits dengan raja Minangkabau, salah satunya surat tertanggal 9 Oktober 1668. Sultan Ahmadsyah, Iskandar Zur-Karnain, penguasa Minangkabau yang kaya akan emas
* 1674-1730: Indermasyah, Son of Ahmadsyah, is known based on the letter received by the VOC regent in Padang and the Dutch governor in Melaka, beginning in 1670. Raja Suruaso, Yang Dipertuan Inderma
* 1780-1821: Muningsyah,Tidak not sure. Sultan Arifin Muningsyah, Yang Dipertuan Pagaruyung Raja Alam Muningsya
* 1821-1833: The last Sultan of Pagaruyung. On May 2, 1833, Sultan Tunggal Alam Bagagar was captured by Dutch troops and exiled to Batavia (Jakarta now) until his death (1849).
Sumber / Source:  https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daftar_Raja_Pagaruyung

2017: Today there are 2 rival kings:
* Muchdan Taher Bakrie Sultan Alam Bagagarsyah Daulat Yang Dipertuan Raja Alam Pagaruyung,
* Sutan Haji Muhammad Taufiq Thaib Tuanku Mudo Mahkota Alam.


The palaces

There are 2 palaces.

1) Istana Silinduang Bulan

Istano Silinduang Moon was rebuilt in 1750, as the old building was old and began to crumble. In 1821, this palace burned down during the Padri War. In 1869, Istono Silinduang Bulan was built again by Yang Dipertuan Gadih Puti Reno Sumpu, the nephew of Sultan Tangkal Syariful Alam Bagagar Syah Yang Dipertuan Hitam, and the daughter of Yang Dipertuan Gadih Reno Sori with Sultan Abdul Jalil Yang Dipertuan Sembahyang (holder of Raja Adat, King of Worship, and King of Nature). On August 3, 1961 Istano Silinduang Moon burned again.
The existing palace was re-established on the burning Palace site in 1961.

* Foto istana Silinduang Bulan:link

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2) Istano Basa

Pagaruyung Palace is the istana (royal palace) of the former Pagaruyung Kingdom, located in Tanjung Emas subdistrict near Batusangkar town, Tanah Datar Regency, West Sumatra, Indonesia. It was built in the traditional MinangkabauRumah Gadang vernacular architectural style, but had a number of atypical elements including three stories structure and larger dimension compares to common rumah gadang.

Although today there is no king or royal family resides in this palace, since the Pagaruyung Kingdom was disbanded in 1833, the palace still held in high esteem among Minangkabau people as the descendants of scattered Minang nobles (bangsawan) still seeks their root and link to the former royal house of Pagaruyung. The palace has been destroyed by fire for several times, in 1804, 1966 and 2007. It has been rebuilt again and today function as museum and popular tourist attraction.

Source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pagaruyung_Palace

* Foto istana Istano Basa:link


Grave of kings from Pagaruyung


Source

– History Pagaruyung: Wiki
History Pagaruyung on Melayuonline: link


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