Kingdom of Jeumpa / Sumatera – Prov. Aceh, Kab. Bireuen

Kingdom of Jeumpa, about the 8th century.
Jeumpa kingdom was a kingdom located around the hilly areas ranging from riverbank Peudada in west until Pante Krueng Peusanga, Aceh, Sumatra.
In the 1930’s during dutch rule, Jeumpa became a area with self-government headed by a Uleebalang.
In modern times Jeumpa became a sub-district  of the District Bireuen.

Location prov. of Aceh

District Bireuen


* Foto Aceh: Sultanate of Aceh Darussalem: link
* Foto Aceh: Kings of small kingdoms in Aceh: link
*
Foto Aceh: Aceh in the past: link
*
Foto Aceh: War Aceh-holland (1873-1903): link


History of the kingdom

Google translation

At the beginning of the 8th century a young man named Abdullah from India came back into the royal center in the Blang Seupeueng area with a commercial vessel through Kuala Jeumpa for the purpose of trading.
Abdullah then lived with the residents and broadcast the religion of Islam. People in the country easily accept Islam because it is interested in its behavior. Abdullah then married to a princess named Ratna Kumala. Later Abdullah was crowned king to succeed his father-in-law, who later gave his name to the Kingdom of Jeumpa.
The existence of this Jeumpa Islamic Kingdom can also be traced from the establishment of the Kingdom of Perlak which is considered as the first Islamic Kingdom in the archipelago.
Perlak in 805 was a port city controlled by Persian descendants led by a descendant of the King of Islam Jeumpa Prince Salman al-Parsi with Princess Manyang Seuludong named Meurah Syahr Nuwi. As an advanced and secure trading port, it becomes a stopover for Arab and Persian Muslim merchant ships. As a result, the Muslim community in this region has developed quite rapidly, especially because of the many marriages between Muslim merchants and local women, thus giving birth to the blood of Arab and Persian blood with the daughters of Perlak.
This situation led to the establishment of the first Islamic kingdom of Islam, on the day of the month of Muharram, 840. The first Sultan of this kingdom was the descendant of Arabic Quraish named Maulana Abdul Azis Syah, titled Sultan Alaiddin Sayyid Maulana Abdul Azis Syah. According to Wan Hussein Azmi, Arab and Persian traders are included in the Shiite group. Wan Hussein Azmi in Islam in Aceh attributed their arrival to the Shiite Revolution that took place in Persia in 744-747.
The small empires of Aceh in the past included Jeumpa experienced ups and downs. Especially after the presence of Portuguese in Malacca in 1511 which was followed by the arrival of the Netherlands. The Dutch took control of Aceh in 1904, when the Dutch were able to occupy the citadel of Kuta Glee in Batee Iliek, in the western part of Bireuen Regency.
By the Decree of the dutch government of Nederlands Indie on September 7, 1934, Aceh was divided into six Afdeeling (districts) headed by an Assistant Resident.
In addition to the Onder Afdeeling, there were also some Ulee Balang (Zelf Bestuur) areas that could govern themselves, namely Ulee Balang Keureutoe, Geureugok, Jeumpa and Peusangan, headed by Ampon Chik.
.

Kingdoms of Jeumpa, Ulim, Peureulak, dan Tanjung Perak


About the small kingdoms under the sultanate of Aceh

* List of Uleebalang, 1914: link
* List of Uleebalang, 1940: link

The western part of the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam was opened and built in the 16th century on the initiative of Sultan Saidil Mukamil (Sultan of Aceh who lived between 1588-1604), followed by Sultan Iskandar Muda (Sultan of Aceh who lived in 1607-1636) the Acehnese Rayeuk and Pidie.
The first bustling area was at Meulaboh bay (Pasi Karam) ruled by a king who was titled Teuku Keujruen Meulaboh, and Negeri Daya (District Jaya) which at the end of the 15th century had established a kingdom with its king is Sultan Salatin Alaidin Riayat Shah with the title Poteu Meureuhom Daya.
The area of West Aceh at the end of the 17th century had developed into several small kingdoms led by a Uleebalang, namely: Kluang; Lamno; Kuala Lambeusoe; Kuala Daya; Kuala Unga; Babah Awe, and many more.

The structure of government of the small kingdoms

1) Gampong, the leader was called Geucik or Keuchik. The smallest territorial area of the government structure in Aceh was the Gampong. A Gampong consisted of groups of houses adjacent to each other.
The leader of the gampong was called Geucik or Keuchik, who was assisted by a proficient in religious matters, as Teungku Meunasah.
2) Mukim, the leader was called Imum Mukim. The larger territorial area of government was the Mukim. The Mukim was a combination of several gampongs, which were located nearby.
The leader of Mukim was called Imum Mukim. He was the one who coordinated the village (gampong) heads or Keuchik-Keuchik.
3) Sago or Sagoe, the leader was called Commander Sagoe or Panglima Sagi. In the Aceh region of Rayeuk (District Aceh Besar now), was a form of government called Sagoe or Sagi. The entire region of Aceh Rayeuk was incorporated into three Sagi, which can be regarded as three federations. The three Sagoe or Sagi were named:
1. Sagi XXII Mukim, consisted of 22 mukim.
2. Siva XXV Mukim, consisted of 25 mukim
3. Sagi XXVI Mukim, consisted of 26 Mukim
The leader was called Panglima Sagoe or Panglima Sagi, from generation to generation, they also hold the title of Uleebalang.
They were appointed as Panglima Sagi by the Sultan of Aceh, who gave them a stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh known as Cap Sikureung.
4) Nangroe, the leader was called Uleebalang. Another form of royal territory found in Aceh was called Nangroe or Negeri. This Nangroe was actually a conquered area of the Kingdom of Aceh and was located outside Aceh Inti or Aceh Rayeuk.
The leadership of Nangroe was called Uleebalang, which was established by tradition for generations.
The
Uleebalang was the Head of State of the small kingdoms who were very powerful. However, when they assume the position of Uleebalang in their area, they had to be approved by the Sultan of Aceh. The Appointment Letter was called Sarakata and stamped with the stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh, Cap Sikureung.
5) The Sultan. The highest level in the government structure of the Kingdom of Aceh was the central government based in the royal capital, formerly known as Bandar Aceh Dar as Salam. The head of the central government was the Sultan who had the title of Tuanku.

Map of the Uleebalang (small kingdoms) in Aceh 1917


Source Jeumpa (only indon. language)
.
– Sejarah kerajaan Jeumpa: http://dunianyasejarah.blogspot.co.id/2013/05/kerajaan-jeumpa.html
Sejarah kerajaan Jeumpa di Wiki:Wiki
– Sejarah kerajaan Jeumpa: http://www.abad29studio.com/2014/10/sejarah-kabupaten-bireuen.html
Sejarah kerajaan Jeumpa sebagai kerajaan Islam pertama:http://www.kompasiana.com/hamdaniwartawan/kerajaan-jeumpa-kerajaan-islam-pertama-di-nusantara_552af7c96ea8340866552cf6
– Kerajaan Jeumpa, kerajaan Islam pertama di Aceh: http://acehdalamsejarah.blogspot.co.id/2009/02/kerajaan-jeumpa-aceh-adalah-kerajaan.html
Putro Manyang Seuludong, Ratu Islam di Kerajaan Jeumpa: http://hack87.blogspot.co.id/2013/05/sejarah-putro-manyang-seuludong-ratu.html

Source (only indon. language)

– Uleebalang di Aceh: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kesultanan_Aceh#Ul.C3.A8.C3.ABbalang_.26_Pembagian_Wilayah
– Uleebalang di kesultanan Aceh: https://www.kompasiana.com/ruslan./siapakah-uleebalang_552c324c6ea83444128b4580
– Sejarah Uleebalang: https://www.facebook.com/boy.adityamawardi/posts/771874096190147
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://febasfi.blogspot.co.id/2012/11/struktur-atau-lembaga-pemerintahan.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://helmiyymailcom.blogspot.co.id/2012/10/struktur-pemerintahaan-kerajaan-aceh.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://wartasejarah.blogspot.co.id/2013/07/kerajaan-aceh.html
– Tentang uleebalang: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ul%C3%A8%C3%ABbalang


Foto grave of king of Jeumpa in dusun jruen blang seupeeng, sub district Jeumpa, District Bireuen

A stone of the grave of the king of Jeumpa.


 

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