Kingdom of Jeumpa, about the 8th century.
The Jeumpa Kingdom was one of the Islamic kingdoms in Indonesia in the 7th century AD. The founder of this kingdom was Salman Al-Parsi. The territory of the Jeumpa kingdom covered the area of the current Bireuen Regency. The kingdom of Jeumpa fell in 880 AD.
In the 1930’s during dutch rule, Jeumpa became a area with self-government headed by a Uleebalang.
In modern times Jeumpa became a sub-district of the District Bireuen.
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KINGDOM OF JEUMPA
History of the kingdom of Jeumpa, 8th century
By the Decree of the dutch government of Nederlands Indie on September 7, 1934, Aceh was divided into six Afdeeling (districts) headed by an Assistant Resident.
In addition to the Onder Afdeeling, there were also some Ulee Balang (Zelf Bestuur) areas that could govern themselves, namely Ulee Balang Keureutoe, Geureugok, Jeumpa and Peusangan, headed by Ampon Chik.
About the small kingdoms under the sultanate of Aceh
The western part of the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam was opened and built in the 16th century on the initiative of Sultan Saidil Mukamil (Sultan of Aceh who lived between 1588-1604), followed by Sultan Iskandar Muda (Sultan of Aceh who lived in 1607-1636) the Acehnese Rayeuk and Pidie.
The first bustling area was at Meulaboh bay (Pasi Karam) ruled by a king who was titled Teuku Keujruen Meulaboh, and Negeri Daya (District Jaya) which at the end of the 15th century had established a kingdom with its king is Sultan Salatin Alaidin Riayat Shah with the title Poteu Meureuhom Daya.
The area of West Aceh at the end of the 17th century had developed into several small kingdoms led by a Uleebalang, namely: Kluang; Lamno; Kuala Lambeusoe; Kuala Daya; Kuala Unga; Babah Awe, and many more.
The structure of government of the small kingdoms
1) Gampong, the leader was called Geucik or Keuchik. The smallest territorial area of the government structure in Aceh was the Gampong. A Gampong consisted of groups of houses adjacent to each other.
The leader of the gampong was called Geucik or Keuchik, who was assisted by a proficient in religious matters, as Teungku Meunasah.
2) Mukim, the leader was called Imum Mukim. The larger territorial area of government was the Mukim. The Mukim was a combination of several gampongs, which were located nearby.
The leader of Mukim was called Imum Mukim. He was the one who coordinated the village (gampong) heads or Keuchik-Keuchik.
3) Sago or Sagoe, the leader was called Commander Sagoe or Panglima Sagi. In the Aceh region of Rayeuk (District Aceh Besar now), was a form of government called Sagoe or Sagi. The entire region of Aceh Rayeuk was incorporated into three Sagi, which can be regarded as three federations. The three Sagoe or Sagi were named:
1. Sagi XXII Mukim, consisted of 22 mukim.
2. Siva XXV Mukim, consisted of 25 mukim
3. Sagi XXVI Mukim, consisted of 26 Mukim
The leader was called Panglima Sagoe or Panglima Sagi, from generation to generation, they also hold the title of Uleebalang.
They were appointed as Panglima Sagi by the Sultan of Aceh, who gave them a stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh known as Cap Sikureung.
4) Nangroe, the leader was called Uleebalang. Another form of royal territory found in Aceh was called Nangroe or Negeri. This Nangroe was actually a conquered area of the Kingdom of Aceh and was located outside Aceh Inti or Aceh Rayeuk.
The leadership of Nangroe was called Uleebalang, which was established by tradition for generations.
The Uleebalang was the Head of State of the small kingdoms who were very powerful. However, when they assume the position of Uleebalang in their area, they had to be approved by the Sultan of Aceh. The Appointment Letter was called Sarakata and stamped with the stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh, Cap Sikureung.
5) The Sultan. The highest level in the government structure of the Kingdom of Aceh was the central government based in the royal capital, formerly known as Bandar Aceh Dar as Salam. The head of the central government was the Sultan who had the title of Tuanku.
Map of the Uleebalang (small kingdoms) in Aceh 1917
Source Jeumpa (only indon. language)
– Sejarah kerajaan Jeumpa: http://dunianyasejarah.blogspot.co.id/2013/05/kerajaan-jeumpa.html
– Sejarah kerajaan Jeumpa di Wiki:Wiki
– Sejarah kerajaan Jeumpa: http://www.abad29studio.com/2014/10/sejarah-kabupaten-bireuen.html
– Sejarah kerajaan Jeumpa sebagai kerajaan Islam pertama:http://www.kompasiana.com/hamdaniwartawan/kerajaan-jeumpa-kerajaan-islam-pertama-di-nusantara_552af7c96ea8340866552cf6
– Kerajaan Jeumpa, kerajaan Islam pertama di Aceh: http://acehdalamsejarah.blogspot.co.id/2009/02/kerajaan-jeumpa-aceh-adalah-kerajaan.html
– Putro Manyang Seuludong, Ratu Islam di Kerajaan Jeumpa: http://hack87.blogspot.co.id/2013/05/sejarah-putro-manyang-seuludong-ratu.html
Source (only indon. language)
– Uleebalang di Aceh: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kesultanan_Aceh#Ul.C3.A8.C3.ABbalang_.26_Pembagian_Wilayah
– Uleebalang di kesultanan Aceh: https://www.kompasiana.com/ruslan./siapakah-uleebalang_552c324c6ea83444128b4580
– Sejarah Uleebalang: https://www.facebook.com/boy.adityamawardi/posts/771874096190147
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://febasfi.blogspot.co.id/2012/11/struktur-atau-lembaga-pemerintahan.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://helmiyymailcom.blogspot.co.id/2012/10/struktur-pemerintahaan-kerajaan-aceh.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://wartasejarah.blogspot.co.id/2013/07/kerajaan-aceh.html
– Tentang uleebalang: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ul%C3%A8%C3%ABbalang