The Sultanate of Surakarta, Kasunanan Surakarta Hadiningrat, was founded in 1755 and still exists. Located on central Jawa, city of Surakarta.
* Foto sultans and kings, today on Jawa: link
* Foto keratons (palaces) on Jawa: link
* Foto Batavia (Jakarta) in the past: link
* Foto Jawa in the past: link
* Attack of Batavia by Sultan Agung, 1628/1628: link
* Foto Diponegoro – war, 1825: link
* Foto old sites on Jawa: link
Present sultan (2020): Sri Susuhunan Pakubuwana XIII, Sampeyandalem Ingkang Sinuhun Kangjeng Susuhunan Pakubuwono XIII.
Sri Susuhunan Pakubuwana XIII
History of the sultanate
After Sultan Agung I (ruled 1613 to 1645), the power and prestige of Sultanate of Mataram was declining due to a power struggle and conflict of succession within the royal family. The VOC (Dutch East India Company) exploited the power struggle to increase its control on Java, and manage to gain concessions of Mataram’s former colony in Priangan and Semarang. The Mataram seat in Plered near Kotagede collapsed after the Trunojoyo revolt in 1677.
Sunan Amral (Amangkurat II) relocated the palace to Kartasura. During the reign of Sunan Pakubuwono II, in 1742 Raden Mas Garendi (Sunan Kuning) led Chinese mercenaries and launched a revolt against the crown and also VOC. Raden Mas Garendi was the son of Prince Teposono and also the grandson of Amangkurat II. The rebels managed to take control of the Kartasura capital and ousted Pakubuwono II who fled and sought refuge in Ponorogo.
With the help of Adipati Cakraningrat IV the ruler of western Madura, Pakubuwono II regained the capital and cracked down on the rebellion. However the palace of Kartasura was destroyed and considered inauspicious since the bloodbath took place there.
Pakubuwono II decided to build a new palace and capital city in Sala (Solo) village. The transfer of the capital to Sala village is commemorated in chandrasengkala (chronogram) “Kombuling Pudya Kepyarsihing Nata” which corresponds to Wednesday 12 Sura 1670 Javanese year (17 February 1745).
Political turmoil was resolved during the Sunan Pakubuwana III era, after the Mataram Sultanate was divided into two. In 1755 on February 13, the Mataram region was divided into two, namely the Ngayogyakarta Sultanate and the Kasuhunan Surakarta Sultanate, the division of this area was stipulated in the Agreement of Giyanti (1755). Then in 1757 with Dutch intervention and based on the Salatiga agreement (1757), the Mataram sultanate was further divided into three parts, namely the Sultanate of Yogyakarta, Kasuhunan Surakarta and Mangkunegaran. And in 1813 the Sultanate of Yogyakarta was split again into two, namely the Sultanate of Yogyakarta and Pakualaman.
So, since 1813 there are 2 sultanates and 2 principalities on middle Java and they exist until now:
– Sultanate of Yogyakarta,
– Sultanate of Surakarta,
– princely state of Mangkunegaran,
– princely state of Paku Alaman.
Jawa, 1700, sultanate of Mataram
Java, 1757 – Java afer the Agreement of Giyanti: Surakarta, Yogyakarta and Mangkunegaran
Java, 1830 – Surakarta, Yogyakarta, Mangkunegaran and Paku Alaman
List of Sultans
Sri Susuhunan Pakubuwana II (born: Kartasura, 1711 – died: Surakarta, 1749) was the last king of Kasunanan Kartasura who ruled 1726 – 1742. He became the first king of Kasunanan Surakarta, ruled 1745 – 1749.
see Wiki: Wiki
- Pakubuwono III (1755–1788) [son of Pakubuwono II] (engl. link)
- Pakubuwono IV (1788–1820) [son of] (engl. link)
- Pakubuwono V (1820–1823) [son ]
- Pakubuwono VI (1823–1830; died 1849) [son]
- Pakubuwono VII (1830–1858) [uncle] (engl. link)
- Pakubuwono VIII (1858–1861) [brother] (engl. link)
- Pakubuwono IX (1861–1893) [son of Pakubuwono VI] (engl. link)
- Pakubuwono X (1893–1939) [son] (engl. link)
- Pakubuwono XI (1939–1945) [son] (engl. link)
- Pakubuwono XII (1945–2004) [son] (engl. link)
- Contested succession, 2004–2009
- Pakubuwono XIII (2009- ) [son] (engl. link)
Treaty of Giyanti, 1755
The Treaty of Giyanti (also known as the Treaty of Gianti Java, the Gianti Agreement, or the Giyanti Treaty) was signed and ratified on February 13, 1755 in Giyanti (southeast of Karanganyar, Central Java) between Prince Mangkubumi, the Dutch East India Company, and Sunan Pakubuwono III along with his allies.
Based on the terms of the agreement, the eastern half of the Sultanate of Mataram in central Java was given to Pakubuwono III with Surakarta as its capital, while the western half was given to Prince Mangkubumi with its capital in Yogyakarta. This treaty marked the division of former territory of Mataram Sultanate between Surakarta Sunanate and Yogyakarta Sultanate.
– Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Giyanti
Royal graveyard Imogiri
Imogiri (also Imagiri) is a royal graveyard complex in Yogyakarta, in south-central Java, Indonesia, as well as a modern village located near the graveyard in Bantul Regency. Imogiri is a traditional resting place for the royalty of central Java, including many rulers of the Sultanate of Mataram and of the current houses of Surakarta and Yogyakarta Sultanate. The name Imagiri is derived from Sanskrit Himagiri, which means ‘mountain of snow’. The latter is another name for Himalaya.
– Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imogiri
Old graveyard complex Kota Gede
Kotagede (also Kota Gede, Javanese for “Big City”) is a historic neighborhood in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Kotagede contains the remains of the first capital of Mataram Sultanate, established in the 16th century. Some of the remains of the old Kotagede are remains of the palace, the royal cemetery, the royal mosque, and defensive walls and moats.
– Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kotagede
Keraton (palace) of the sultanate
The palace (keraton) of Kasunanan Surakarta is located in Surakarta City, Central Java. This palace was founded by Susuhunan Pakubuwana II in 1744 as a substitute of the Palace of Kartasura, which was destroyed.
Although the Surakarta Kasunanan has officially been part of the Republic of Indonesia since 1945, this palace complex is still functioning as a residence of Sri Sunan and his court house which still runs the royal tradition to this day.
– Source: http://javaisbeautiful.com/2011/10/01/keraton-palace-surakarta-hadiningrat-solo-central-java-indonesia/
History of the Keratons (palaces)
* Old keraton in Karta was built by Sultan Agung (father of Amangkurat I) between 1614 and 1622 and made of wood.
– Foto keraton Karta: link
* Keraton Plered was the royal palace built by Amangkurat I of Mataram. Amangkurat moved from the old palace in Karta, built by Sultan Agung (father of Amangkurat I) between 1614 and. Plered was built with brick. The construction work in Plered was finished in 1666. It is located in Pleret, Bantul, to the north-east of Karta.
Kraton Plered was abandoned in 1680 by the son of Amangkurat I, Amangkurat II, who moved to Kartasura.
– Foto keraton Plered: link
* Keraton Kartasura was built by Sunan Amangkurat II or Sunan Amangkurat Amral (1677-1703) because the Mataram Palace Pleret had been occupied by the enemy (Trunajaya).
– Foto Keraton Kartasura: link
Sixty-six years Kartasura Palace was officially inhabited by Sunan Amangkurat II (1677-1702), although its construction was still not perfect. Precisely on September 11, 1680. King of Mataram who was originally named Prince Adipati Anom was the first king who lived in Kartasura1745, Keraton Kartasura officially moved to Keraton Surakarta, about 10 kilometers east of the old palace.
* Keraton Surakarta
This palace was founded by Susuhunan Pakubuwana II in 1744 as a substitute Palace / Palace Kartasura.
– Foto Keraton Surakarta: link
* Keraton Yogyakarta was build by Sultan Hamengku Buwono I a few months after the Giyanti Agreement in 1755.
– Photo Keraton Yogyakarta: link
Source (only indon. language)
– Sejarah Kasunanan Surakarta Hadiningrat (kesultanan Surakarta) di Wiki: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasunanan_Surakarta
– Sejarah Kasunanan Surakarta Hadiningrat (kesultanan Surakarta): http://www.sejarahnusantara.com/daerah-istimewa/sejarah-kasunanan-surakarta-tahun-1745%E2%80%931945-pembentukan-daerah-istimewa-surakarta-tanggal-1-september-1945-dan-berakirnya-dis-akibat-gerakan-anti-monarki-oleh-tan-malaka-oktober-1945-10042.htm
– Sejarah Kasunanan Surakarta Hadiningrat (kesultanan Surakarta): http://nesaci.com/sejarah-keraton-kasunanan-surakarta/
– Sejarah Kasunanan Surakarta Hadiningrat (kesultanan Surakarta): http://www.kerajaannusantara.com/id/surakarta-hadiningrat/sejarah
– Tentang Keraton di Wiki: link
– Tentang Keraton: https://www.maioloo.com/tempat-wisata/jawa-tengah/keraton-surakarta/