The Sultanate of Langkat: 1568 – 1946. Located in the District of Langkat, prov. of north Sumatera.
District of Langkat
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SULTANATE OF LANGKAT
About the sultan (2020)
Present Sultan: Tuanku Azwar Abdul Djalil Rahmatshah Al Hajj, grandson of Sultan Abdul Aziz Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah. Since 2003.
History of the sultanate of Langkat, 1568 – 1946
The Sultanate of Langkat is one of the older states on the north-eastern seaboard of Sumatera. Although dating back to the pre-islamic age, recorded history is available only from the 17th century.
The Royal house served as representatives or local rulers on behalf of the Sultan of Aceh until the early years of the nineteenth century. The arrival of the Europeans during the teens and twenties, and the weakening of Acehnese power in their wake, prompting the kings of Langkat to seek to establish their own independence. They threw in their lot with, and accepted the protection of the Sultans of Siak, then the dominant power on the east coast of Sumatra. However, the Acehnese returned during the 1850’s and attempted to regain control. The granting of grandiose titles to the local rulers and an administrative presence stemmed the tide for a period. Eventually, Acehnese power was no match for the Europeans. Langkat concluded a separate contract with the Dutch in 1869. They went one better than the Acehnese and recognised the Raja as Sultan in 1887.
The potential for developing the plantation economy was a great temptation to the Dutch and the prospect of income from leases, too great for the Raja. Musa al-Khalidy, assumed the title of Sultan and a reign name to signifying his complete equality with his former overlord. In common with Deli, Asahan and Siak, the sultanate prospered beyond expectation. Rubber demand boomed during the Great War and the ever-growing demand for oil followed during the 1920’s and 30’s. By the early 1930’s the Sultan of Langkat was the wealthiest ruler in Sumatra, thanks to oil royalties from the Pengkalan Brandan fields. All this only served to enhance the envy of the Japanese.
The Second World War soon displaced prosperity as Japanese oppression displaced Dutch colonialism. The end of war, however, did not bring an easy peace. The Communist inspired “social revolution” of 1946 brought hideous bloodshed and loss of life. Amongst the casualties, Tengku Amir Hamzah, scion of the Langkat Royal House and the foremost Malay poet and writer of his generation. The evils of the times did not end quickly as the Dutch attempted to regain control while the Javanese republicans attempted to oust them. Large numbers of the aristocracy perished in these conflicts, chaos reigned supreme and the sultanates all but ceased to function. The reigning Sultan, Mahmud ‘Abdu’l Jalil, died in 1948, one year before the conclusion of hostilities and the recognition of independence by the Dutch. His son was not proclaimed or installed as Sultan.
– Source: https://www.royalark.net/Indonesia/langkat.htm
The sultanate of Langkat in 1930
List of kings
- 1568-1580 : Panglima Dewa Shahdan
- 1580-1612 : Panglima Dewa Sakti, child of the previous king
- 1612-1673 : Raja Kahar bin Panglima Dewa Sakdi, child of the previous king
- 1673-1750 : Bendahara Raja Badiuzzaman bin Raja Kahar, child of the previous king
- 1750-1818 : Raja Kejuruan Hitam (Tuah Hitam) bin Bendahara Raja Badiuzzaman, child of the previous king
- 1818-1840 : Raja Ahmad bin Raja Indra Bungsu, nephew of the previous king
- 1840-1893 : Tuanku Sultan Haji Musa al-Khalid al-Mahadiah Muazzam Shah (Tengku Ngah) bin Raja Ahmad, child of the previous king
- 1893-1927 : Tuanku Sultan Abdul Aziz Abdul Jalil Rakhmat Shah bin Sultan Haji Musa, child of the previous king
- 1927-1948 : Tuanku Sultan Mahmud Abdul Jalil Rakhmat Shah bin Sultan Abdul Aziz, child of the previous king
- 1948-1990 : Tengku Atha’ar bin Sultan Mahmud Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah, child of the previous king,
- 1990-1999 : Tengku Mustafa Kamal Pasha bin Sultan Mahmud Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah, brother of the previous king
- 1999-2001 : Tengku Dr Herman Shah bin Tengku Kamil, grandchild of Sultan Abdul Aziz Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah
- 2001-2003 : Tuanku Sultan Iskandar Hilali Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah al-Haj bin Tengku Murad Aziz, grandchild of Sultan Abdul Aziz Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah, the title of Sultan was used again
- 2003-….. : Tuanku Sultan Azwar Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah al-Haj bin Tengku Maimun, grandchild of Sultan Abdul Aziz Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah.
Sultan Mahmud Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah (ruled 1927-1948).
1 – Istana Kota Baru
Destroyed in 1945.
* Foto Istana Kota Baru: link
2 – Istana Darul Aman Kota Lama
* Foto Istana Darul Aman Kota Lama: link
Kingdoms on North Sumatera 19th century