The Sultanate of Mataram: 1586 – 1755. Located on central Jawa.
Prov. Central Java
* Foto sultans and kings, today on Jawa: link
* Foto keratons (palaces) on Jawa: link
* Foto Batavia (Jakarta) in the past: link
* Foto Jawa in the past: link
* Attack of Batavia by Sultan Agung, 1628/1628: link
* Foto Diponegoro – war, 1825: link
* Foto old sites on Jawa: link
Line of history sultanate of Mataram
1586-1755: Sultanate of Mataram
1755: Founding of Sultanate of Surakarta (Nagari Kasunanan Surakarta Hadiningrat), until today
1755: Founding of Sultanate of Yogyakarta (Nagari Kasultanan Ngayogyakarta), until today
1757: Founding of Principality of Mangkunegaran (Kadipaten Mangkunegara), until today
1813: Founding of Principality of Paku Alaman (Kadipaten Paku Alam), until today
History of the sultanate of Mataram, 1586-1755
Mataram, large kingdom in Java that lasted from the late 16th century to the 18th century, when the Dutch came to power in Indonesia. Mataram was originally a vassal of Pajang, but it became powerful under Senapati (later known as Adiwijoyo), who defeated Pajang and became the first king of Mataram. Senapati attempted to unite eastern and central Java without much success.
Under Sultan Agung, who came to power in 1613, as the Dutch entered the region, Mataram was able to expand its territory to include most of Java. After capturing several port cities of northern Java, especially Surabaya and Madura, he attempted to seize Batavia from the Dutch East India Company. He launched two unsuccessful attacks, one in 1628 and the other in 1629. The sultan also launched a “holy war” against Bali and against Balambangan in extreme eastern Java. He then concentrated on the internal development of Mataram. He moved the inhabitants of central Java to the less populated Krawang (in western Java) and encouraged interisland trade. He also adapted Islām to the Hindu-Javanese tradition and introduced a new calendar in 1633 based on Islāmic and Javanese practice. The arts during Sultan Agung’s reign were a mixture of Islāmic and Hindu-Javanese elements.
Mataram began to decline after the death of Sultan Agung (1645) and, in the mid-18th century, lost both power and territory to the Dutch East India Company. It had become a vassal state of the company by 1749. Wars of succession took place in Mataram, resulting in the division of the eastern and western regions in 1755 (see Gianti Agreement); two years later Mataram was divided into three regions.
In 1680 Amangkurat II (reigned 1677-1703) moved the palace to Kartasura (1680), about 5 km west of Pajang, because the old palace was considered contaminated.
Since then the sultanate was called Kasunanan Kartasura.
Treaty of Giyanti, 1755
The Treaty of Giyanti (also known as the Treaty of Gianti Java, the Gianti Agreement, or the Giyanti Treaty) was signed and ratified on February 13, 1755 in Giyanti (southeast of Karanganyar, Central Java) between Prince Mangkubumi (the first sultan of Yogyakarta), the Dutch East India Company, and Sunan Pakubuwono III.
The accord officially divided the Sultanate of Mataram between Mangkubumi (Yogyakarta) and Pakubuwono (Surakarta).
1757: Establishment of Mangkunegaran
Mangkunegaran is a small Javanese princely state located within the region of Surakarta in Indonesia. It was established in 1757 by Raden Mas Said, when he submitted his army to Pakubuwono III.
1812: Establishment of Paku Alaman
Pakualaman is a minor Javanese princely state within the Sultanate of Yogyakarta. It was created in 1812.
Sultanate of Mataram during the reign of Sultan Agung (1613-1645).
Map of Java, 1830: sultanates of Surakarta and Yogyakarta; and Mangkunegaran (pink) and Paku Alaman (yellow)
List of kings
- Panembahan Senopati (Panembahan Senopati ing Alaga Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatullah Tanah Jawa): 1587-1601
- Raden Mas Jolang (Sri Susuhunan Adi Prabu Hanyakrawati Senapati-ing-Ngalaga Mataram): 1601-1613
- Raden Mas Jatmika / Sultan Agung (Sultan Agung Senapati-ing-Ngalaga Abdurrahman): 1613-1645)
- Raden Mas Sayidin / Amangkurat I (Kanjeng Susuhunan Prabu Amangkurat Agung): 1646-1677
- Amangkurat II: 1677-1703
- Amangkurat III: 1703-1704
- Pangeran Puger / Pakubuwono I: 1704-1719
- Amangkurat IV: 1719-1726
- Pakubuwono II: 1726-1749.
- Pakubuwono III: 1749 – 1788
Sultan Agung, 1613-1645
Mas Rangsang titled Sultan Agung Prabu Hanyokrokusumo or better known as Sultan Agung. In his time Mataram expanded to seek influence in Java. The Mataram region included Java and Madura (approximately combined Central Java, Yogyakarta, and East Java now). He moved the location of the palace to Karta (Jw. “Kertå”, then came the title also “Mataram Karta”). As a result of friction in the control of trade between Mataram and VOC based in Batavia, Mataram then coalesced with the Sultanate of Banten and the Sultanate of Cirebon and was involved in several wars between Mataram against the VOC. After his death (buried in Imogiri), he was succeeded by his son Amangkurat (Amangkurat I).
History of the Keratons (palaces)
* Old keraton in Karta was built by Sultan Agung (father of Amangkurat I) between 1614 and 1622 and made of wood.
– Foto keraton Karta: link
* Keraton Plered was the royal palace built by Amangkurat I of Mataram. Amangkurat moved from the old palace in Karta, built by Sultan Agung (father of Amangkurat I) between 1614 and. Plered was built with brick. The construction work in Plered was finished in 1666. It is located in Pleret, Bantul, to the north-east of Karta.
Kraton Plered was abandoned in 1680 by the son of Amangkurat I, Amangkurat II, who moved to Kartasura.
– Foto keraton Plered: link
* Keraton Kartasura was built by Sunan Amangkurat II or Sunan Amangkurat Amral (1677-1703) because the Mataram Palace Pleret had been occupied by the enemy (Trunajaya).
– Foto Keraton Kartasura: link
Sixty-six years Kartasura Palace was officially inhabited by Sunan Amangkurat II (1677-1702), although its construction was still not perfect. Precisely on September 11, 1680. King of Mataram who was originally named Prince Adipati Anom was the first king who lived in Kartasura1745, Keraton Kartasura officially moved to Keraton Surakarta, about 10 kilometers east of the old palace.
* Keraton Surakarta
This palace was founded by Susuhunan Pakubuwana II in 1744 as a substitute Palace / Palace Kartasura.
– Foto Keraton Surakarta: link
* Keraton Yogyakarta was build by Sultan Hamengku Buwono I a few months after the Giyanti Agreement in 1755.
– Photo Keraton Yogyakarta: link
Graveyard of the kings of Mataram in Kota Gede