* Foto’s ancient sites, tribes on Sumatera and old Sumatera: link
History of the kingdom of Aru
The kingdom of Aru (or Haru) was a major Sumatran kingdom from the 13th to the 16th century. It was located on the eastern coast of North Sumatra, Indonesia. In its heyday the kingdom was a formidable maritime power, and was able to control the northern part of the Malacca strait.
Traditionally, the location of Haru or Aru is connected to the site of its successor state, the Sultanate of Deli, which was in and around the city of Medan and Deli Serdang today,
The kingdom was initially established as a Batak Karo polity. The indigenous population practiced native animism as well as Hinduism. During the 13th century Islam came to be practiced alongside the existing faiths. Aru’s capital was located close to present-day Medan city and Deli Serdang. The people of the kingdom are believed to have been descendants of the Karo people from the interior of North Sumatra.
The earliest historical record mentioning the Haru kingdom was a Chinese chronicle dated from the Yuan Dynasty (late 13th century). There is another Chinese record from a later period, the Yingya Shenglan (1416) of the Ming Dynasty. The Kingdom of Haru was also mentioned in two Javanese records, the Nagarakretagama (1365) and Pararaton (c. 15th century). The Malay Annals mentioned Haru as one of a few influential kingdoms in the region, whose prestige rivaled that of Pasai and the Malacca Sultanate. The Portuguese record Suma Oriental written in the early 16th century mentioned Aru as a prosperous kingdom.
Decline of the kingdom
In 1613, Aru kingdom was defeated by Aceh, during the reign of the expansive and ambitious Sultan Iskandar Muda of Aceh. The discovery of tin bullets suggests that Benteng Putri Hijau was a battle site. Haru kingdom was dissolved in the early 17th century. Its successor state was the Deli which was reduced to the status of an Aceh protectorate (1632–1669) and later conquered by Siak (1669–1854).
Old map of the kingdom of Aru, 1619
List of kings
- Sultan Husin (…-…)
- Sultan Mansur Shah (1456-1477)
- Sultan Ali Boncar (…-…)
The ruler of Aru can not be separated from the role of the institution of the Raja Berempat, which according to Peret (2010) had existed before the influence of Aceh. King Urung of the coastline included Urung Sunggal. Urung XII Kuta, Urung Sukapiring and Urung Senembah, each associated with the King Urung in the highlands (Karo), namely Urung Telu Kuru merga Karo-Karo), Urung XII Kuta (Karo-Karo merga), Urung Sukapiring (merga Karo -Karo) and Urung VII Kuta (merga Barus).
– History of Aru kingdom: https://pkl-susu.blogspot.co.id/2016/05/kingdom-of-aru.html
– History of Aru kingdom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aru_Kingdom
Source (only indon. language)
– Sejarah kerajaan Aru: http://tembakaudeli.blogspot.co.id/p/blog-page.html
– Sejarah kerajaan Aru di Wiki: Wiki
– Sejarah kerajaan Aru lengkap: http://limamarga.blogspot.co.id/2012/03/kerajan-aru-haru-karo-dari-tahun-1258.html
– Daftar Raja Aru: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerajaan_Aru
– Kota Rantang dan hubungannya dengan kerajaan Aru: https://nisanaceh.wordpress.com/2009/11/28/11/
– Lokasi kerajaan Aru: http://unjuksejarah.blogspot.co.id/2012/11/kerajaan-aru.html
– Lokasi kerajaan Aru: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerajaan_Aru#Lokasi_Kerajaan_Haru
– Benteng Putri Hijau: jejak kerajaan Aru di Deli Tua: https://delituablog.wordpress.com/category/kerajaan-aru/
– Kesultanan Deli: link