The kingdom of Peusangan was located on Sumatera, District Bireuen, Provinsi Aceh.
During the sultanate of Aceh this kingdom was a vassal or subordinate to the sultan of Aceh and was led by the king who had the title of Uleebalang.
After the end of the Aceh War, in 1914, the small kingdoms entered a Onderafdeling “swapraja”.
* Foto’s kingdom of Peusangan: below
History of the kingdom of Peusangan
The history of Kuta Panjoe can not be separated from the history of the establishment of Peusangan, because this is the beginning of the central government of Peusangan Raya. Kuta Panjoe itself was located just a few hundred meters from the Bugak mosque around Bugak Krueng Matee area, founded by Habib Bugak Al Asyi, a famous aceh scholar in the holy land of Mecca. The Peusangan Kingdom itself was originally part of the royal territory of Jeumpa founded at the end of the 8th century by the Prince of Syahriansyah Salman from Persia whose court was based in Blang Seupung Bireuen.
It was said that in 1182 Ponyak Djat, the Peusangan ruler at that time, received a sarakata prize (letters of recognition) from the sultan of Aceh which at that time was ruled by Sri Ratu Safiatuddin Tajul Alam (1641 – 1675) with the title of “Keujruen Chik Peusangan Seutya Radja”.
Beginning of the 20th century, after the Aceh war, the Dutch East Indies government divided the Aceh region in 6 Afdeeling (Regency) led by an Asistent Resident, one of them was Afdeefing Noord Kust Van Aceh (North Aceh District) covering North Aceh now plus Bandar Dua. Afdeeling Noord Kust Aceh is divided into 3 (three) Onder Afdeeling (Kewedanaan) headed by a Countroleur (Wedana), Onder Afdeeling Bireuen, Onder Afdeeling Lhokseumawe, and Onder Afdeeling Lhoksukon.
The last ruling king of Peusangan: T Johan Alam Syah. With his family.
About the small kingdoms under the sultanate of Aceh
The western part of the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam was opened and built in the 16th century on the initiative of Sultan Saidil Mukamil (Sultan of Aceh who lived between 1588-1604), followed by Sultan Iskandar Muda (Sultan of Aceh who lived in 1607-1636) the Acehnese Rayeuk and Pidie.
The first bustling area was at Meulaboh bay (Pasi Karam) ruled by a king who was titled Teuku Keujruen Meulaboh, and Negeri Daya (District Jaya) which at the end of the 15th century had established a kingdom with its king is Sultan Salatin Alaidin Riayat Shah with the title Poteu Meureuhom Daya.
The area of West Aceh at the end of the 17th century had developed into several small kingdoms led by a Uleebalang, namely: Kluang; Lamno; Kuala Lambeusoe; Kuala Daya; Kuala Unga; Babah Awe, and many more.
Teuku Muhammad Djohan Alamsjah, Uleebalang (= king) the 9th Peusangan. 19 April 1908.
The structure of government of the small kingdoms
1) Gampong, the leader was called Geucik or Keuchik. The smallest territorial area of the government structure in Aceh was the Gampong. A Gampong consisted of groups of houses adjacent to each other.
The leader of the gampong was called Geucik or Keuchik, who was assisted by a proficient in religious matters, as Teungku Meunasah.
2) Mukim, the leader was called Imum Mukim. The larger territorial area of government was the Mukim. The Mukim was a combination of several gampongs, which were located nearby.
The leader of Mukim was called Imum Mukim. He was the one who coordinated the village (gampong) heads or Keuchik-Keuchik.
3) Sago or Sagoe, the leader was called Commander Sagoe or Panglima Sagi. In the Aceh region of Rayeuk (District Aceh Besar now), was a form of government called Sagoe or Sagi. The entire region of Aceh Rayeuk was incorporated into three Sagi, which can be regarded as three federations. The three Sagoe or Sagi were named:
1. Sagi XXII Mukim, consisted of 22 mukim.
2. Siva XXV Mukim, consisted of 25 mukim
3. Sagi XXVI Mukim, consisted of 26 Mukim
The leader was called Panglima Sagoe or Panglima Sagi, from generation to generation, they also hold the title of Uleebalang.
They were appointed as Panglima Sagi by the Sultan of Aceh, who gave them a stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh known as Cap Sikureung.
4) Nangroe, the leader was called Uleebalang. Another form of royal territory found in Aceh was called Nangroe or Negeri. This Nangroe was actually a conquered area of the Kingdom of Aceh and was located outside Aceh Inti or Aceh Rayeuk.
The leadership of Nangroe was called Uleebalang, which was established by tradition for generations.
The Uleebalang was the Head of State of the small kingdoms who were very powerful. However, when they assume the position of Uleebalang in their area, they had to be approved by the Sultan of Aceh. The Appointment Letter was called Sarakata and stamped with the stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh, Cap Sikureung.
5) The Sultan. The highest level in the government structure of the Kingdom of Aceh was the central government based in the royal capital, formerly known as Bandar Aceh Dar as Salam. The head of the central government was the Sultan who had the title of Tuanku.
Map of the Uleebalang (small kingdoms) in Aceh 1917
Left: Teuku Muda Peusangan, younger brother of T Seumaon of Peusangan and district raja of Glumpang Pajong 1885-92, when it was conquered by Peusangan. – Sumber: Collection NIMH Den Haag. — donald tick, Facebook
Generaal Swartwith wife visiting head of Peusangan during his voyage in 1928.
Teuku Muhammad Djohan Alamsjah, Uleebalang the-9 of Peusangan
Teuku Tjhi of Peusangan with family
Marriage of Ramlan, daughter of Teuku Cik – Uleebalang of Peusangan with Teuku Ali Basyan, 1930.
Documents stamp of the king of Peusangan