Kingdoms in Mandailing region / Prov. Sumatera Utara

The region of the Mandailing People is located in the Prov. of North Sumatera.

Prov. North Sumatera

* Foto sultans and kings today on Sumatera: link
* Foto sultans and kings on Sumatera in the past: link

* Foto kingdoms in Simalungun area: link
* Foto small kingdoms in Aceh in the past: link

* Foto Minangkabau People: link
* Foto Batak People: link
* Foto old sites on Sumatera: link

The Mandailing People
Google translation

The 15 clans, that are legally recognized in the Mandailing Tribe are Pulungan, Nasution, Lubis, Matondang, Rangkuti, Batubara, Marbun, Harahap, Dalimunthe, Hutasuhut, Siregar, Hasibuan, Daulay, Pane, Pohan.

Broadly speaking, Mandailing is one of the tribes that are mostly found in the north of Sumatra Island or more specifically in the south of the North Sumatra Province. This tribe has its own blood ties, lineage, language, script, social system, arts, customs and customs which are different from Batak and Malay.

The existence of Mandailing has been calculated since the 14th century with the inclusion of Mandailing’s name in the Palapa Gajah Mada oath in the 13th poem of Prapanca’s Kakawin Negarakertagama as an expansion area of ​​Majapahit around 1287 Caka (1365) to several areas outside Java.
It is believed that the autonomous Mandailing Kingdom was only formed a few centuries later, marked by the first Pulungan rule.

After that, the Nasution clan also established a large kingdom, that was in the Mandailing Godang area. The Lubis clan also founded a kingdom in the Mandailing Julu area.
The two important kingdoms, Nasution and Lubis, ruled autonomously.
All the Panusunan kings in Mandailing area came from one line, namely:
* the Lubis clan in Mandailing Julu and
* the Nasution clan in Mandailing Godang, each of which has full sovereignty in its territory.

The small kingdoms, that existed in Mandailing in the past, were autonomously, even though among the small kings there were basically kinship based on custom.

There are also those, who divide Mandailing People into two major groups, namely Mandailing Godang and Mandailing Julu.
Mandailing Godang is dominated by the Nasution clan. They occupy an area bordering Sihepeng (north), Maga (south), and Muarasoma as well as Muara Parlampungan (west).
Meanwhile, Mandailing Julu is dominated by the Lubis clan. They occupy the area from Laru and Tambangan to Pakantan and Hutagodang.
Apart from the Nasution and Lubis clans, Mandailing is also inhabited by the Pulungan, Rangkuti, Batubara, Daulay, Matondang, Parinduri, Hasibuan, and others clans. Even though these clans are different in their entry into Mandailing, no one wants to be called immigrants. Everyone feels as a native of Mandailing.

The Mandailing kingdoms

The Mandailing area led by the Panusunan Kings are:

1) The Mandailing Godang area, from the clan Nasution, there were King Panusunan in 10  kingdoms:

Penyabungan  Tonga,
Huta Siantar.
Pidoli Dolok.
Gunung Tua.
Gunung Baringin.
Penyabungan Julu.
Aek Nangali.
Muara Soma.
Muara Parlampungan.

2) The Mandailing Julu area, the clan Lubis, there were King Panusunan in 7 kingdoms:

Pakantan Dolok.
Pakantan Lombang.
Sayur Maicat.

Structure of the traditional Mandailing government
There are 3 Functionaries:
  1. Raja (king).
  2. Namora Natoras.
  3. Assistents of the king Raja and others.

1) The king

There are several kind of kings, with their own duty and task.
1) King of the Panusunan (Koeriahoofd).
The highest king of the Huta (village)  and at the same time as King Huta in his own Huta.
2) Raja Ihutan (Onderkoeria). He is king of Huta (village) under the King of Panusunan.
3) King Pamusuk (Kampoenghoofd). The king who leads a Huta (village) under King Ihutan and King of Panusunan.
4) King Sioban Ripe. He is under King Pamusuk, who dwells together in one Huta.
5) Suhu. He is under King Pamusuk and King Sioban Ripe.

In 1906 the title of King of Ihutan (Onderkoeria) and King Sioban Ripe was abolished by the Dutch Government and Ihutan (Onderkoeria) was designated the Chief of the Curia (Koeriahoofd).

Until now there are only:
1) King of the Panusunan. King Panusunan is the highest ruler of several villages (Huta); he has the authority to oversee some of the King of Pamusuk (Head of Kampung).
2) King Pamusuk. King Pamusuk is a subordinate of King of Panusunan and submits to King Panusunan both in terms of custom and in terms of government. King Pamusuk in carrying out his duties is autonomous within his own village.

 2) Namora Natoras

Namora Natoras serves as the king’s companion in making decisions, when discussing or completing a covenant involving the interests of his unity of huta, and accompanying the king in running his government.
King and Namora Natoras play an important role in a covenant to take a decision called: Domu Ni Tahi.

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