Federation of Kaway XVI / Sumatera – Prov. Aceh, Kab. Aceh Barat

The Federasion of Kawai XVI was located on Sumatera, prov. Aceh, District Aceh Barat.
After the end of the Aceh War, in 1914, Kawai XVI entered Onderafdeling Meulaboh, as “swapraja”.

District Aceh Barat

* Foto sultanate of Aceh Darussalem: link
* Foto kings of small kingdoms in Aceh: link
Foto Aceh in the past: link
Foto war Aceh-netherlands (1873-1903): link

* Foto sultans and kings today on Sumatera: link
* Foto sultans and kings on Sumatera in the past: link
* Foto kingdoms in Simalungun area: link
* Foto old sites on Sumatera: link

History of the Federation

Meulaboh developed during the reign of Sultan Ibrahim Mansjur Sjah (1841-1870) of the sultanate of Aceh, because of the increasing number of people from Minangkabau, who moved there, because the Minangkabau was already controlled by the Dutch. There they were no longer free gardening after the Dutch implemented octrooi and cultuurstelsel regulations which required residents to sell their produce to the Dutch.
In its heyday, heads of state in Meulaboh then drafted a state system in the form of an uleebalang federation called Kawai XVI. The Federation is chaired by Uleebalang Kedjruen Tjiek Ujong Kala. Kawai XVI consists of Meulaboh / Tandjung, Udjung Kala, Seunagan, Teuripa, Woyla, Peureumbeue, Mount Meuëh, Kuala Meureubok, and Ranto Pandjang.

It was called Kaway XVI because the federation was formed of sixteen Uleebalang, Uleebalang Tanjong, Ujong Kala, Seunagan, Teuripa, Woyla, Peureumbeu, Gunoeng Meuh, Kuala Meureuboe, Ranto Panyang, Reudeub, Lango Tangkadeuen, Keuntjo, Gume / Mugo, Tadu, Seuneu’am.
After the end of the Aceh War, in 1914, Kawai XVI entered Onderafdeling Meulaboh, as “swapraja”.

About the small kingdoms under the sultanate of Aceh

* List of Uleebalang, 1914: link
* List of Uleebalang, 1940: link

The western part of the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam was opened and built in the 16th century on the initiative of Sultan Saidil Mukamil (Sultan of Aceh who lived between 1588-1604), followed by Sultan Iskandar Muda (Sultan of Aceh who lived in 1607-1636) the Acehnese Rayeuk and Pidie.
The first bustling area was at Meulaboh bay (Pasi Karam) ruled by a king who was titled Teuku Keujruen Meulaboh, and Negeri Daya (District Jaya) which at the end of the 15th century had established a kingdom with its king is Sultan Salatin Alaidin Riayat Shah with the title Poteu Meureuhom Daya.
The area of West Aceh at the end of the 17th century had developed into several small kingdoms led by a Uleebalang, namely: Kluang; Lamno; Kuala Lambeusoe; Kuala Daya; Kuala Unga; Babah Awe, and many more.

The structure of government of the small kingdoms

1) Gampong, the leader was called Geucik or Keuchik. The smallest territorial area of the government structure in Aceh was the Gampong. A Gampong consisted of groups of houses adjacent to each other.
The leader of the gampong was called Geucik or Keuchik, who was assisted by a proficient in religious matters, as Teungku Meunasah.
2) Mukim, the leader was called Imum Mukim. The larger territorial area of government was the Mukim. The Mukim was a combination of several gampongs, which were located nearby.
The leader of Mukim was called Imum Mukim. He was the one who coordinated the village (gampong) heads or Keuchik-Keuchik.
3) Sago or Sagoe, the leader was called Commander Sagoe or Panglima Sagi. In the Aceh region of Rayeuk (District Aceh Besar now), was a form of government called Sagoe or Sagi. The entire region of Aceh Rayeuk was incorporated into three Sagi, which can be regarded as three federations. The three Sagoe or Sagi were named:
1. Sagi XXII Mukim, consisted of 22 mukim.
2. Siva XXV Mukim, consisted of 25 mukim
3. Sagi XXVI Mukim, consisted of 26 Mukim
The leader was called Panglima Sagoe or Panglima Sagi, from generation to generation, they also hold the title of Uleebalang.
They were appointed as Panglima Sagi by the Sultan of Aceh, who gave them a stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh known as Cap Sikureung.
4) Nangroe, the leader was called Uleebalang. Another form of royal territory found in Aceh was called Nangroe or Negeri. This Nangroe was actually a conquered area of the Kingdom of Aceh and was located outside Aceh Inti or Aceh Rayeuk.
The leadership of Nangroe was called Uleebalang, which was established by tradition for generations.
Uleebalang was the Head of State of the small kingdoms who were very powerful. However, when they assume the position of Uleebalang in their area, they had to be approved by the Sultan of Aceh. The Appointment Letter was called Sarakata and stamped with the stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh, Cap Sikureung.
5) The Sultan. The highest level in the government structure of the Kingdom of Aceh was the central government based in the royal capital, formerly known as Bandar Aceh Dar as Salam. The head of the central government was the Sultan who had the title of Tuanku.

Map of the Uleebalang (small kingdoms) in Aceh 1917

Source Kawai and Meulaboh (only indon. language)

– Sejarah Meulaboh: https://rajaagam.wordpress.com/2008/09/26/datuk-raja-agam-dan-negeri-meulaboh-aceh/
– Sejarah Meulaboh: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabupaten_Aceh_Barat
– Sejarah Meulaboh dan federasi Kawai XVI: https://archives.portalsatu.com/histori/riwayat-meulaboh-dalam-catatan-sejarah-aceh-disikolah-kito-berlaboh/

Source (only indon. language)

– Uleebalang di Aceh: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kesultanan_Aceh#Ul.C3.A8.C3.ABbalang_.26_Pembagian_Wilayah
– Uleebalang di kesultanan Aceh: https://www.kompasiana.com/ruslan./siapakah-uleebalang_552c324c6ea83444128b4580
– Sejarah Uleebalang: https://www.facebook.com/boy.adityamawardi/posts/771874096190147
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://febasfi.blogspot.co.id/2012/11/struktur-atau-lembaga-pemerintahan.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://helmiyymailcom.blogspot.co.id/2012/10/struktur-pemerintahaan-kerajaan-aceh.html
– Struktur pemerintahan kesultanan Aceh: http://wartasejarah.blogspot.co.id/2013/07/kerajaan-aceh.html
– Tentang uleebalang: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ul%C3%A8%C3%ABbalang


Marriage in 1931 of Regent-raja Teuku Mohammed Ali Akbar alias RR Teuku Rajeu; temporary king of Kawaj XVI 1910-42. Sumber foto: Donald Tick, Facebook

Man right: Keujruen Teuku Chik Itam Teuboih Moehamat Ali Hanapiah of Kawaj XVI (1890-1894), succesor K T Radja Nago;1894, died 1910, real rule since 1902. Picture ca. 1892. Sumber foto: KITLV Netherlands — Donald Tick, Facebook

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