The Federation of Kawai XII is located on Sumatra, prov. Aceh, Kab. Aceh Barat.
History of the Federation
Meulaboh developed rapidly under the reign of Sultan Ibrahim Mansyur Syah (1841-1870).
In its heyday, heads of state in Meulaboh drafted a state system in the form of an uleebalang federation called Kawai XVI. The Federation was chaired by Uleebalang Kedjruen Tjiek Ujong Kala. Kawai XVI consisted of Meulaboh / Tandjung, Udjung Kala, Seunagan, Teuripa, Woyla, Peureumbeue, Mount Meuëh, Kuala Meureubok, and Ranto Pandjang.
At that time another federation was formed on the border of Meulaboh with Pedir other than Kaway XVI Federation. This Federation is called Kaway XII which consisted of 2 uleebalang namely Pameuë, Ara, Lang Jene, Reungeuët, Geupho, Reuhat, Tungkup / Dulok, Tanoh Merah / Tutut, Geumpang, Tangse, Beunga, and Keumala.
The Kaway XII Federation was chaired by a Kedjruën whose position is at Geumpang.
About the small kingdoms (Uleebalang) in Aceh
Under the sultanate of Aceh there were many small kingdoms; they were subordinate to the sultan of Aceh.
Uleebalang was a ruler of nanggroe or small kingdom. When they assumed the position of Uleebalang in their area, they must be approved by the Sultan of Aceh. The Appointment Letter was called Sarakata, and stamped with the stamp of the Kingdom of Aceh, theCap (seal) Sikureung.
Map of the Uleebalang (small kingdoms) in Aceh 1917
Source (only indon. language)
– Sejarah Meulaboh: https://rajaagam.wordpress.com/2008/09/26/datuk-raja-agam-dan-negeri-meulaboh-aceh/
– Sejarah Meulaboh: https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabupaten_Aceh_Barat
– Sejarah Meulaboh dan federasi Kawai XVI dan XII: https://archives.portalsatu.com/histori/riwayat-meulaboh-dalam-catatan-sejarah-aceh-disikolah-kito-berlaboh/